Friday, February 18, 2005

Web of Eugenics around PRESCOTT BUSH

* George Herbert Walker
* Gordon Gray (& Alice Shelton Gray, C. Bowden Gray)
* John McCloy
* John Foster Dulles
* Allen Dulles
* E.H. Harriman
* E.R. Harriman (Roland or "bunny")
* W. Averill Harriman
* Robert A. Lovett, C. Dillion Read and "Jock" Whitney
* William H. Draper
* Fritz Thyssen
* Clarence Dillon
* Clarence Gamble
* John D. Rockefeller
* John D. Rockefeller Jr.
* John D. Rockefeller III
* Frank Rockefeller (Samuel Prescott Bush)
* William Rockefeller (Samuel Prescott Bush)
* Percy Rockefeller (Samuel Prescott Bush)
* Max Warburg
* Felix Warburg
* Samuel Pryor (Samuel Prescott Bush)
* William Stamps Farish
* Montagu Norman
* Hermann Schmitz
* Walter Teagle
* Edsel Ford
* Henry Ford
Results 176 for "Gordon Gray" Prescott Bush Eugenics.
Results 197 for "Gordon Gray" Eugenics.
ALL ABOARD: Newspapers jumped on sterilization bandwagon
Gordon Gray owned the Journal and the Sentinel at the time, and his cousin, Alice Shelton Gray, was a founding member of the Human Betterment League.
Gordon Gray (1909-1982), owner of WSJS, was publisher of the Winston-Salem Journal and the Twin City Sentinel. He was at various times during his career secretary of the Army, president of the University of North Carolina and national security advisor to President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
July 18, 1951. Gordon Gray (right), former Secretary of the Army and President of the University of North Carolina, being administered the oath as the first Director of the new Psychological Strategy Board by Frank K. Sanderson (left), Administrative Officer of the White House, while President Harry S. Truman (center) witnesses the event. Photo: U.S. Army. Source: Truman Library Collection.
Profile of Gordon Gray
Brief profile :
Assistant Secretary of the Army, 1947-1949
Secretary of the Army, 1949-1950
Special Assistant to the President, 1950
Director, Psychological Strategy Board, 1951
The director and architect of the Psychological Strategy Board was Gordon Gray. Henry Kissinger was Gray's consultant. Kissinger was also the paid political consultant to Rockefeller family. Gray, Kissinger, and Rockefeller were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. Gray served in the administrations of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford. Gordon Gray was heir to the R. J. Reynolds tobacco fortune and President of the University of North Carolina. Gray was a broadcast and publication media specialist.
In providing overall foreign policy guidance, the State Department also coordinates and supervises US resources in the conduct of propaganda and political warfare. The US information agency conducts mass communications and provides policy guidance on the conduct of Psychological Operations (PSYOPs) in accordance with the basic foreign policy guidance it receives from the State Department...
"The Harriman security regime created the Psychological Strategy Board (PSB) in 1951. The man appointed director of the PSB [was] Gordon Gray.... Gordon's brother, R.J. Reynolds chairman Bowman Gray Jr., was also a naval intelligence officer, known around Washington as the 'founder of operational intelligence.' Gordon Gray became a close friend and political ally of Prescott Bush; and Gray's son became for Prescott's son, George, his lawyer and the shield of his covert policy." So you have the Whitney/Stimson/Bundy clan and the Harriman/Bush boys wielding a tremendous amount of influence on the political, economic and social affairs of America and the world. Then you have Prescott Bush's buddy Richard Nixon as an activist vice-president.
U.S. Medal of Freedom Recipient Gordon Gray
As High Commissioner of occupied Germany, John McCloy was instrumental in the early release and commutation of numerous Nazi war criminals. In October 1950, he commuted the five-year sentence of Baron Ernst von Weizsacker, who as a Nazi Foreign Office official had been convicted of complicity in the deportation of some six thousand Jews from France to Poland. In January of the following year, McCloy announced that five of the fifteen death sentences from the Nuremburg judgements would be carried out. He then reduced the sentences of sixty four of the remaining seventy four war criminals. One third of these were to be released immediately. He also reduced the sentences of all the remaining convicted doctors who had experimented on concentration camp inmates. One SS officer who confessed to having personally executing fifteen hundred Jews was reprieved because he had later refused to carry out any further murders---Book Review: A Nation Betrayed: The Chilling True Story of Secret Cold War Experiments Performed on our Children and Other Innocent People by Carol Rutz

Page 33:

To say that John McCloy rubbed shoulders with some of the most influential
people of that decade (1950s) is an understatement.... In fact, Henry
[Kissinger] served as a consultant to the president's Psychological
Strategy Board, which [J. Edgar] Hoover regarded as a Rival Intelligence
Group. C.D. Jackson, the chief of the Psychological Strategy Board,
frequently consulted with McCloy. Kai Bird referred to this as "A new
rather shadowy executiver agency that was supposed to help coordinate
covert intelligence with sophisticated propaganda programs."
The Psychological Strategy Board had three directors during Harry S. Truman's presidency. Gordon Gray was the first director, serving from June 1951 to May 1952.
Gordon Gray was the first director of the Psychological Strategy Board, having been installed by the "Harriman security regime" in the early 50's. Gray and his four elite Jupiter Island, Florida, neighbors Prescott Bush, Robert A. Lovett, C. Dillion Read and "Jock" Whitney, are, along the Dulles and Harriman brothers considered by some historians to be the "fathers of this permanent covert action monolith". The "secret government" in the shadowy realms of intelligence operations that cloaks its actions with cries of national security.

They created this modern wall of deniality for Eisenhower deep within the government-military-industrial complex-that Ike was later to regret. One of Gray's jobs, as Ike's National Security advisor, was to "under the guise of 'oversight' on all US covert action, to protect and hide" the "cryptocracy."

"Gray's son, C. Bowden was President Bush's very helpful "soulmate'", "protector of the president, come what may", White House counsel. He helped to keep George "out of the loop," as George became embroiled in the evolving Iran-Contra scandal.
William H. Draper, Jr. had joined the Bush team in 1927, when he was
hired by Dillon Read & Co., New York investment bankers. Draper was
put into a new job slot at the firm: handling the Thyssen account.

We recall that in 1924, Fritz Thyssen set up his Union Banking
Corporation in George Herbert Walker's bank at 39 Broadway, Manhattan.
DILLON READ & CO.'s boss, Clarence Dillon, had begun working with
Fritz Thyssen some time after Averell Harriman first met with Thyssen
-- at about the time Thyssen began financing Adolf Hitler's political

In January 1926, Dillon Read created the "German Credit and Invest-
ment Corporation" in NEWARK, New Jersey and BERLIN, Germany, as
Thyssen's short-term banker. That same year, Dillon Read created the
"Vereinigte Stahlwerke" (German Steel Trust), incorporating the Thyssen
family interests under the direction of New York and London finance.
Note #2. Note #3

William H. Draper, Jr. was made director, vice president, and
assistant treasurer of the German Credit and Investment Corp. His
business was short-term loans and financial management tricks for
Thyssen and the German Steel Trust. Draper's clients sponsored
Hitler's terroristic takeover; his clients led the buildup of the Nazi
war industry; his clients made war against the United States. The
Nazis were Draper's direct partners in BERLIN and NEW JERSEY:
Alexander Kreuter, residing in Berlin, was president; Frederic Brandi,
whose father was a top coal executive in the German Steel Trust,
moved to the United States in 1926 and served as Draper's co-
director in NEWARK.

Draper's role was crucial for Dillon Read & Co., for whom Draper
was a partner and eventually vice president. The GERMAN CREDIT
AND INVESTMENT CORP. (GCI) was a "front" for Dillon Read: It had
the same New Jersey address as U.S. & INTERNATIONAL SECURITIES
CORP. (USIS), and the same man served as treasurer of both firms.
Note #2. Note #4
Results 296 for "Gordon Gray" Prescott Bush.
Results "Gordon Gray" Prescott Bush "Jupiter Island".
Results 166 for "Gordon Gray" R.J. Reynolds Tobacco.
Gordon Gray
Father: Bowman Gray, Sr.
Brother: Bowman Gray, Jr. (head of RJ Reynolds Tobacco, b. 1907, d. 1969)
Wife: Jane Boyden Craige (m. 1938, d. 1953)
Son: Burton Gray
Son: C. Boyden Gray
Son: Bernard Gray
Wife: Nancy McGuire Beebe (m. 1956)
Gordon Gray Sr. was born in 1909, also in Baltimore. He was married in 1938 to the former Jane Boyden Craige, and they had four sons: Gordon Jr., Burton, C. Boyden (J.D. '68) and Bernard (B.A. '72). After Jane's death, Gray married the former Nancy Maguire Beebe.

In addition to serving as president of the University system, Gordon Gray was chairman of the board of Piedmont Publishing Co.; publisher of the Winston-Salem Journal and Sentinel; chairman of the National Trust for Historic Preservation; and secretary of the Army. A lawyer, Gray's service to the federal government began with his appointment as President Truman's assistant secretary of the war in 1947; two years later, he was appointed to secretary of the Army. President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed him his national security adviser in 1958. He served on the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board under Presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. The University presented Gray with an honorary law degree in 1949.

His son C. Boyden also has had a career of public service in Washington, clerking for Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren and serving as President George Bush's White House counsel.
First International Conference on Smoking and Health / tobacco document

When Leighton H. Coleman resigned from the board of directors, RJR President AH Galloway nominated J. Paul Sticht, and Chairman Gordon Gray seconded it (Minutes of RJR Board Meeting, June 20, 1968.)
Trusts for the benefit of Gordon Gray Jr., C. Boyden Gray, Burton C. Gray, Bernard Gray, and Nancy Maguire Gray, heirs of the RJ Reynolds Tobacco fortune, were brought into play in the merger of AOL and Time Warner.
Results 23 for "Gordon Gray" Koch Industries.$FILE/sej_fa00.pdf
... By CURTIS MOORE "Money," said multi-millionaire Gordon Gray, "has a way of talking
that transcends mere words." Gray was President Truman's Secretary ...
... "C. Boyden Gray is the son of Gordon Gray, a powerful ... Citizens for a Sound Economy
(another neoconservative pressure group) together with David H. Koch of the ...
We shall examine here the alliance of the Bush family with three other families: Farish, Draper and Gray.

The private associations among these families, have led to the President's relationship to his closest, most confidential advisers. These alliances were forged in the earlier Hitler project and its immediate aftermath. Understanding them will help us to explain George Bush's obsession with the supposed overpopulation of the world's non-Anglo-Saxons, and the dangerous means he has adopted to deal with this "problem. ...

... Through British imperial contacts, Boyden Gray's grandfather, Bowman Gray, had become principal owner of the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. Boyden's father, Gordon Gray, had recently founded the Bowman Gray (memorial) Medical School in Winston-Salem, using his inherited cigarette stock shares. The medical school was already a eugenics centre.

As the experiment began, Gordon Gray's great aunt, Alice Shelton Gray, who had raised him from childhood, was living in his household. Aunt Alice had founded the "Human Betterment League," the North Carolina branch of the national eugenical sterilization movement. Aunt Alice was the official supervisor of the 1946-47 experiment. Working under Miss Gray was Dr. Claude Nash Herndon, whom Gordon Gray had made assistant professor of "medical genetics" at Bowman Gray Medical School. Dr. Clarence Gamble, heir to the Proctor and Gamble soap fortune, was the sterilizers' national field operations chief. The experiment worked as follows. All children enrolled in the school district of Winston-Salem, N.C., were given a special "intelligence test." Those children who scored below a certain arbitrary low mark were then cut open and surgically sterilized. ...
Results 807 for Alice Gray eugenics.
Results 62 for Alice Gray eugenics "Human Betterment League"
Results 15,100 for eugenics Rockefeller.
... John Davison Rockefeller (1839-1937) made his fortune in the oil industry. He founded Standard Oil, which at one time controlled 95 percent of the oil refining business in the country. He and his descendants gave away hundreds of millions of dollars.

The Rockefellers funded the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Germany, when eugenicists were preparing the way ideologically for what eventually became the world's most infamous slaughter, the Nazi holocaust. The Rockefeller Institute supported Alexis Carrel, who advocated the use of gas to get rid of the unwanted. John D. Rockefeller III founded the Population Council. Rockefeller money made Alfred Kinsey's sex research possible. ...

... Sharpless wrote, "The power to accomplish this task was based on their relationship with the philanthropic community. In addition to the Rockefeller Foundation and the Population Council, other Foundations active in this area included the Ford Foundation, the Milbank Memorial Fund and, to a lesser extent, the Carnegie Corporation, and the Conservation Foundation."
Support from the Wealthy

In 1930 John D. Rockefeller and John D. Rockefeller Jr. were members of the American Eugenics Society. Furthermore, in the Twenties Raymond Fosdick, an important official of the Rockefeller Foundation, was a member of the American Eugenics Society Advisory council. In this period the Rockefeller Foundation gave money to build quarters for Ernst Rudin, the man who later wrote Hitler's 1933 Sterilisation Law.(6) As co-founder with Alfred Ploetz of the German Eugenics Society, Rudin claimed credit as the inspiration for all Hitler's racial laws, including the Nuremberg laws which made Jews second class citizens in Germany.(7)

In the early part of the century Mrs. E.H. Harriman, who inherited the fortune based on the Union Pacific railroad, created the Eugenics Record Office. Her endowment helped fund the work of Harry Laughlin, the director of the Eugenics Record Office. Laughlin wrote the Model Sterilisation Law which Nazi eugenicists used as a model for their 1933 Sterilisation Law. He accepted an award from Heidelberg University honouring him for his part in developing this law.(8) He was also an important witness at the Congressional hearings on the Johnson Act, the immigration Act which began the policy of national immigration quotas.

Such initiatives became a terrible trap for the Jews in the late Thirties. The Johnson Act ultimately resulted in the exclusion from America of the Jews attempting to flee Nazi Germany and its racial laws - laws inspired by Laughlin, Rudin and other eugenicists. The exclusion of the Jews was no accident. The Johnson Act, the American law, was, like the Nazi laws, intended to keep a nation Nordic:

"The unique Immigration Quota Acts of 1921-24 .. By their enactment a first class power wrote into law the concept of the desirability of racial homogeneity ... The Nordic stream ... had become a trickle ... Followed these Quota Acts which said to the world: America, still overwhelmingly Nordic, proposes so to remain! These acts began a gigantic eugenic experiment in population control."(9)

After this came the genocide.

That which we now call genocide was then called eugenics.(10)

Auschwitz showed the world the true face of eugenics. Yet some among the wealthy continued to support it.(11)

For example, we find the names Rockefeller and Harriman, supporting the introduction of abortion and contraception, the means of eugenics. John D. Rockefeller III gave Margaret Sanger money with which to develop a contraceptive. Mrs. E.H Harriman's son was Averill Harriman, Governor of New York in the Fifties. Harriman allowed Robert Moses to follow a policy of letting Harlem deteriorate. (See Robert Moses and the Fall of New York., Robert Caro) It was then possible for the next governor, Nelson Rockefeller, to speak of the dreadful conditions in Harlem and the need for contraception and abortion as a solution for the problems of the people trapped there. Hence, in the Sixties, abortion, a eugenic goal, came to be seen as "progressive" in New York State. In the early Seventies, Nelson Rockefeller signed one of the first state law allowing widespread abortion, and the Rockefeller family gave money for the first legal abortion facility in New York State. In the Eighties, Pamela Harriman, Governor Harriman's English widow, used his money to fund the Democratic Leadership PAC, which helped make support for abortion a requirement for advancement in the Democratic Party.(12) (Ironically, the Harriman money, which was obtained as a consequence of the extinguishing of Indian land titles, was dissipated in Pamela Harman's project to extinguish American rights. This left the surviving Harriman blood relatives, in 1994, at the age of eighty, owners of a trust fund as empty as a treaty promise. Litigation is beginning on a legal situation more tangled than that in Bleak House.(13))

Eugenics is antidemocratic and funded by some of the richest families in America.
John D. Rockefeller's leadership in the Population Council was not the first Rockefeller foray into eugenics. When Alexis Carrel wrote his book advocating euthanasia institutions with a suitable gas for exterminating various people, he was on the staff of the Rockefeller Institute. The Rockefellers financed the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in the 1920s, and provided funds for Ernst R¸din for genetic research in the 1920s.

... A feminist author, Germaine Greer, commented on the post-war movement, saying: "It now seems strange that men who had been conspicuous in the eugenics movement were able to move quite painlessly into the population establishment at the highest level, but if we reflect that the paymasters were the same -- Ford, Mellon, Du Pont, Standard Oil, Rockefeller and Shell -- are still the same, we can only assume that people like Kingsley Davis, Frank W. Notestein, C. C. Little, E. A. Ross, the Osborns Frederick and Fairfield, Philip M. Hauser, Alan Guttmacher and Sheldon Segal were being rewarded for past services." In other words, the population control movement was the same as the old eugenics movement -- the same money, the same leaders, the same activities -- but with a new excuse. ...
The Pioneer Fund is closely linked with the American Eugenics Society. The Fund was founded by Harry Laughlin and Frederick Osborn and funded by W.P. Draper. In the late Forties and early Fifties, Frederick Osborn was its president and also president of the American Eugenics Society. Within the same time frame, he began helping John D. Rockefeller III found the Population Council. Recent society directors and members have had their work funded by the Pioneer Fund.(13)
The transformation from open eugenics to population planning is described well by Germaine Greer: "It now seems strange that men who had been conspicuous in the eugenics movement were able to move quite painlessly into the population establishment at the highest level, but if we reflect that the paymasters were the same -- Ford, Mellon, Du Pont, Standard Oil, Rockefeller and Shell -- are still the same, we can only assume that people like Kingsley Davis, Frank W. Notestein, C. C. Little, E. A. Ross, the Osborns Frederick and Fairfield, Philip M. Hauser, Alan Guttmacher and Sheldon Segal were being rewarded for past services." *31 That is, the population control movement was the same money, the same leaders, the same activities -- with a new excuse.
One of the organisations that promoted eugenics under the new population rubric was the Population Council. It was founded in 1952 by John D. Rockefeller 3rd, and spent $173,621,654 in its first 25 years. *32 That is not a bad budget for one of the organisations in a dead movement! Clearly, the people who think the eugenics movement died in the rubble in Berlin do not understand crypto-eugenics, genetics or population control.
Eugenics would have been so much bizarre parlor talk had it not been for extensive financing by corporate philanthropies, specifically the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harriman railroad fortune. They were all in league with some of America's most respected scientists from such prestigious universities as Stanford, Yale, Harvard and Princeton. These academicians espoused race theory and race science, and then faked and twisted data to serve eugenics' racist aims.

Stanford President David Starr Jordan originated the notion of "race and blood" in his 1902 racial epistle "Blood of a Nation," in which the university scholar declared that human qualities and conditions such as talent and poverty were passed through the blood.

In 1904, the Carnegie Institution established a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island that stockpiled millions of index cards on ordinary Americans, as researchers carefully plotted the removal of families, bloodlines and whole peoples. From Cold Spring Harbor, eugenics advocates agitated in the legislatures of America, as well as the nation's social service agencies and associations.

The Harriman railroad fortune paid local charities, such as the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration, to seek out Jewish, Italian and other immigrants in New York and other crowded cities and subject them to deportation, confinement or forced sterilization.

The Rockefeller Foundation helped found the German eugenics program and even funded the program that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.

Much of the spiritual guidance and political agitation for the American eugenics movement came from California's quasi-autonomous eugenic societies, such as Pasadena's Human Betterment Foundation and the California branch of the American Eugenics Society, which coordinated much of their activity with the Eugenics Research Society in Long Island. These organizations -- which functioned as part of a closely-knit network -- published racist eugenic newsletters and pseudoscientific journals, such as Eugenical News and Eugenics, and propagandized for the Nazis.
Results 532 for eugenics Rockefeller "Josef Mengele".
Results 260 for "Kaiser Wilhelm Institute" Rockefeller "Josef Mengele".
Results 386 for "Kaiser Wilhelm Institute" nazis "Josef Mengele".
Results 704 for "Kaiser Wilhelm Institute" Auschwitz "Josef Mengele".
Results 93 for "Kaiser Wilhelm Institute" Auschwitz "forced sterilization".
Results 142 for "Kaiser Wilhelm Institute" "forced sterilization".
Results 418 for "Kaiser Wilhelm Institute" "John D. Rockefeller".
Results 15 for "forced sterilizations" America "John D. Rockefeller"
Results 1,550 for eugenics America "John D. Rockefeller".
Results 79 for eugenics America "William Rockefeller".
Results 216 for eugenics America "Percy Rockefeller"
Results 6 for "William Rockefeller" "Percy Rockefeller" "Samuel Prescott Bush".
Results 70 for "William Rockefeller" "Percy Rockefeller" "Samuel P. Bush".
Results 69 for "William Rockefeller" "Percy Rockefeller" "Samuel Bush".
Results 67 for "E.H. Harriman" "Percy Rockefeller" "William Rockefeller".
Results 16 for "E.H. Harriman" eugenics "Percy Rockefeller" "William Rockefeller"
Results 26 for "E.H. Harriman" eugenics "Percy Rockefeller"
Results 22 for "E.H. Harriman" eugenics "William Rockefeller".
Results 96 for "E.H. Harriman" eugenics "John D. Rockefeller".
Results 46 for "E. Roland Harriman" eugenics "John D. Rockefeller".
Results 117 for "E. Roland Harriman" eugenics "Prescott Bush".
Results 153 for "Rothschilds" Armenia genocide.
Results 196 for "Rothschilds" Armenian genocide.
Results 59,500 for Armenian genocide Oil.
Results 702 for Armenian Azerbaijan Oil WWI.
Results 1,780 for Armenia Azerbaijan Oil WWI.
Results 12 for Rothschilds Armenia Azerbaijan Oil WWI.
Results 5,770 for Rothschilds Wall Street Bankers.
Results 289 for Rothschilds "Max Warburg" "Jacob Schiff"
Results 44 for "E.H. Harriman" "Max Warburg" "Jacob Schiff".
Results 480 for "Max Warburg" "Jacob Schiff".
Results 8 for "Averill Harriman" "Max Warburg" "Jacob Schiff".
Results 7 for "Averill Harriman" "Max Warburg" "Prescott Bush".
Results 19 for "Averill Harriman" "Max Warburg"
Results 899 for "Averill Harriman" "Prescott Bush".
Results 379 for "Max Warburg" "Prescott Bush".
Results 756 for Rothschilds "Max Warburg"
Results 561 for Rothschilds "Jacob Schiff".
Results 6,970 for "Jacob Schiff".
Jacob Schiff was born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1847. After being educated in Germany, Schiff emigrated to the United States in 1865. In 1875 he married the daughter of the successful banker, Solomon Loeb. He joined Kuhn, Loeb and Company and took charge of the company in 1885. Together with his partners, Otto Kahn and Paul Warburg, he made a great deal of money from financing railroads. He purchased the Union Pacific Railroad and attempted to gain control of Northern Pacific. This led to him being criticised by President Theodore Roosevelt and resulted in the passing of anti-trust laws. Jacob Schiff died in New York City on 25th September, 1920.
Results 736 for "Jacob Schiff" Kuhn Loeb.
Results 850 for "Max Warburg" Kuhn Loeb.
Results 912 for "Lenin" Kuhn Loeb.
Results 54 for "Averill Harriman" Kuhn Loeb.
Results 13,900 for "Kaiser Wilhelm" Lenin.
Even with the coming of the Soviets in 1917, the Russians had profound secrets to use against the West. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was perceived by many as an agent of the Tsar's cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German dictator and monarch. Upon the abdication from the throne of Tsar Nicholas II, Lenin, the new dictator, arranged a peace arrangement with the Germans, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. March 1917. For such purpose, Lenin, in a sealed train arranged by the Germans, was whisked across war-torn Europe from Switzerland, to Finland. This was arranged by dictator Kaiser Wilhelm II. Lenin entered Russia and with the Soviets seized control of the St. Petersburg government already in a shambles. The Treaty had a secret codicil, enabling the Soviets, without time limits, to work blackmail, shake-down, and extortion, in huge liability amounts, to be used forever after March, 1917, against the West. Lenin agreed to permit Tsar Nicholas II, his German wife, and their five children to escape. It was to be disguised, however, as if the Tsar and his family were assassinated.
Then finally in 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne and the Provisional Government took over. That's when Lenin got off the beach and got to work. Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany was nice enough to give Lenin a whole bunch of one-way tickets to Russia on a special armored train, hoping that Lenin would take some of the more obnoxious sovoks with him. They were taking up all the good tables in Berlin coffeeshops.
Results 364 for "Kaiser Wilhelm" Kuhn Loeb.
Results 241 for "Kaiser Wilhelm" "Felix Warburg" | "Max Warburg".
Max Warburg, who aside from being a leading German banker with thousands of clients and renowned as an intimate of Kaiser Wilhelm II, spent a good part of his time in caring for the Talmud Torah.
Results 153 for "Max Warburg" "Trading With The Enemy Act".
Results 150 for "Kaiser Wilhelm" "Felix Warburg" is remarkable is not the degree of intolerance, but the extent to which Jews were tolerated and even encouraged in Germany. Jews were permitted to wield tremendous power and influence even though so many of them -- with the Warburgs at the forefront -- were part of a mighty, supra-national Jewish network that was dedicated above all to its own particular interests.

Members of this international Jewish elite cemented its ties through marriage. For example, Felix Warburg married Frieda Schiff, daughter of probably the most powerful Jew in America, the German-born Jacob Schiff. Felix's brother Paul married Nina Loeb, daughter of another prominent Jewish banker, Solomon Loeb.
The Rothschilds are allegedly behind the Morgan Empire which derives from the London based George Peabody and Co which became J.S. Morgan and Co in 1864 on the death of Peabody (a Rothschild agent). Control passed to J.S. Morgan's son, John Pierpont Morgan, and the company acquired its present name of J.P. Morgan. The Morgan Empire now includes General Electric and all its subsidiaries, Morgan Guaranty Trust, National Bank of Commerce…etc..

The House of Rothschild also has strong connections with the Warburg banking family which includes Paul and Felix, who were instrumental in the setting up of the US Federal Reserve System, and their brother Max who ran the German interests.
Rockefeller Empire

The Rockefeller Empire is based on oil, largely the Standard Oil company set up by John D. Rockefeller in 1853. (Part of this is now more familiar as Exxon and Esso.) Its influence on the political arena has been fairly open and obvious.

J.D. Rockefeller III set up the Population Council in 1952 which, ever since, has been advocating zero population growth in the US. In 1972 this sentiment was echoed by Lawrence Rockefeller (CFR, Bil, TC) who was appointed by Nixon to lead a commission into population growth.
Paul Moritz Warburg also became a banker. He was a partner with M. M. Warburg and Co., of Hamburg in 1895 and came to the United States in 1902. Here he joined forces with Kuhn, Loeb and Co. He became a naturalized citizen in 1911. While still an alien, he set about reorganizing the banking system of the United States and was one of the bankers who met secretly with Senator Aldrich at Jekyl Island, Georgia, in 1910, to work out the details for the FEDERAL RESERVE ACT of 1913.

Felix Warburg came to the U.S. and was naturalized in 1900 and also joined Kuhn, Loeb and Co.

Paul Warburg became the first Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, resigning his $500,000 a year job with Kuhn, Loeb and Co., to accept a job that paid $12,000. ...

During W W I, Paul Warburg through the parent bank of M. M. Warburg in Germany, was in the U.S. Treasury Dept. in charge of Liberty Bonds which financed the war against Germany. In the meantime, his brother Max was financing Kaiser Wilhelm's war effort against the Allies. ...

Paul resigned from the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve in May of 1918, after investigation revealed that his brother was at the head of Germany's secret service and after it had been proved that he was affiliated with the Communist Party.
Results 185 for "Paul Warburg" "german secret service".
No reference is made to the Hoover-Francqui business associations which were the subject of huge lawsuits in London. The Francqui visit probably involved Hoover's Moratorium on German War Debts, which stunned the financial world. On December 15, 1931, Chairman McFadden informed the House of a dispatch in the Public Ledger of Philadelphia, October 24, 1931, "GERMAN REVEALS HOOVER'S SECRET. The American President was in intimate negotiations with the German government regarding a year's debt holiday as early as December, 1930." McFadden continued,

"Behind the Hoover announcement there were many months of hurried and furtive preparations both in Germany and in Wall Street offices of German bankers. Germany, like a sponge, had to be saturated with American money. Mr. Hoover himself had to be elected, because this scheme began before he became President. If the German international bankers of Wall Street -- that is Kuhn Loeb Company, J. & W. Seligman, Paul Warburg, J. Henry Schroder -- and their satellites had not had this job waiting to be done, Herbert Hoover would never have been elected President of the United States.

The election of Mr. Hoover to the Presidency was through the influence of the Warburg Brothers, directors of the great bank of Kuhn Loeb Company, who carried the cost of his election. In exchange for this collaboration Mr. Hoover promised to impose the moratorium of German debts. Hoover sought to exempt Kreuger's loan to Germany of $125 million from the operation of the Hoover Moratorium. The nature of Kreuger's swindle was known here in January when he visited his friend, Mr. Hoover, in the White House."
Results 159 for "Max Warburg" "german secret service".
Here we deal with two notorious bankers: the “Warburgs”. The American Jewish banker Paul M. Warburg, chairman of the US Federal Reserve Bank, negotiates Germany ’s war debts with his brother, the German Jewish Banker Max Warburg of Warburg & Co. of Hamburg. Both are partners of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., which again is an affiliation of the Rothschild cartel.

It is agreed that I.G Farben will form a cartel with Rockefeller National Oil, that IG Farben be floated on the American market and that the American investors finance Germany ’s war debts unwittingly. Max of Warburg and Co, Hamburg , becomes chairman of I.G. Farben of Germany , while his brother Paul becomes chairman of I.G. Farben of America . When in 1929 the Warburgs bring about the crash at Wall Street, the Warburgs had Germany ’s war debt reduced to nothing.
Results 287 for "Felix Warburg" "I.G. Farben".
Postwar Campaigns

"The Jews were the worst sufferers in the war. 'The successive blows of contending armies have all but broken the back of European Jewry and have reduced to tragically unbelievable poverty, starvation and disease about 6,000,000 souls, or half the Jewish population of the earth."

-From a statement by Felix Warburg, Chairman of the Joint Distribution Committee, November 1919.[100]

"In Europe there are today more than 5,000,000 Jews who are starving or on the verge of starvation, and many are in the grip of a virulent typhus epidemic."[101]

Speaking from Paris on October 26, 1919, Felix Warburg spoke about plans to switch from emergency or general relief to reconstructive relief in the activities of the Joint Distribution Committee. Warburg said:[102]

"The 30 million dollars given since the war by America for the relief of Jewish victims of the war programs has been well spent and served the purpose of keeping body and soul together for millions of unfortunates who otherwise would have perished.

Warburg explained, 'The great need of urgent relief-food, clothing, and shelter, still exists but as Europe settles down the need for money for that purpose will pass. It is passing even now. We are hoping to get 20 million dollars in an American drive and use perhaps half of this for work of immediate relief.

'The other half will be used as capital for a bank. What the Jews and everybody else in Europe need is raw materials to get back to work.
The New York Times* had noted on May 6, 1914 that Paul Warburg had "retired" from Kuhn, Loeb Company in order to serve on the Federal Reserve Board, although he had not resigned his directorships of American Surety Company, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, National Railways of Mexico, Wells Fargo, or Westinghouse Electric Corporation, but would continue to serve on these boards of directors. "Who's Who" listed him as holding these directorships and in addition, American I.G. Chemical Company (branch of I.G. Farben), Agfa Ansco Corporation, Westinghouse Acceptance Company, Warburg Company of Amsterdam, chairman of the Board of International Acceptance Bank, and numerous other banks, railways and corporations. "Kuhn Loeb & Co. with Warburg have four votes or the majority of the Federal Reserve Board."29
Thousands of German opponents of Hitlerism were shot or intimidated by privately armed Nazi Brown Shirts. In this connection we note that the original " Merchant of Death," Samuel Pryor, was a founding director of both the Union Banking Corp. and the American Ship and Commerce Corp. Since Mr. Pryor was executive committee chairman of Remington Arms and a central figure in the world's private arms traffic, his use to the Hitler project was enhanced as the Bush family's partner in Nazi Party banking and trans-Atlantic shipping.

The U.S. Senate arms-traffic investigators probed Remington after it was joined in a cartel agreement on explosives to the Nazi firm I.G. Farben. Looking at the period leading up to Hitler's seizure of power, the Senators found that " German political associations, like the Nazi and others, are nearly all armed with American ... guns.... Arms of all kinds coming from America are transshipped in the Scheldt to river barges before the vessels arrive in Antwerp. They then can be carried through Holland without police inspection or interference. The Hitlerists and Communists are presumed to get arms in this manner. The principal arms coming from America are Thompson submachine guns and revolvers. The number is great. '
Results 353 for "Remington Arms" "I.G. Farben".
On March 25, 1942, U.S. Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold announced that William Stamps Farish (grandfather of the President's money manager) had pled `` no contest '' to charges of criminal conspiracy with the Nazis. Farish was the principal manager of a worldwide cartel between Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey and the I.G. Farben concern. The merged enterprise had opened the Auschwitz slave labor camp on June 14, 1940, to produce artificial rubber and gasoline from coal. The Hitler government supplied political opponents and Jews as the slaves, who were worked to near death and then murdered.

After pleading `` no contest '' to charges of criminal conspiracy with the Nazis, William Stamps Farish was fined $5,000. (Similar fines were levied against Standard Oil--$5,000 each for the parent company and for several subsidiaries.) This of course did not interfere with the millions of dollars that Farish had acquired in conjunction with Hitler's New Order, as a large stockholder, chairman and president of Standard Oil. All the government sought was the use of patents which his company had given to the Nazis--the Auschwitz patents--but had withheld from the U.S. military and industry.
Walter S. Carpenter, Jr. had been chairman of the finance committee of the Du Pont Corporation (1930-40). In 1933, Carpenter oversaw Du Pont's purchase of Remington Arms from Sam Pryor and the Rockefellers, and led Du Pont into partnership with the Nazi I.G. Farben Company for the manufacture of explosives. Carpenter became Du Pont's president in 1940. His cartel with the Nazis was broken up by the U.S. government. Nevertheless, Carpenter remained Du Pont's president as the company's technicians participated massively in the Manhattan Project to produce the first atomic bomb. He was chairman of Du Pont from 1948 to 1962, retaining high-level access to U.S. strategic activities.

Walter Carpenter and Prescott Bush were fellow activists in the Mental Hygiene Society. Originating at Yale University in 1908, the movement had been organized into the World Federation of Mental Health by Montagu Norman, himself a frequent mental patient, former Brown Brothers partner and Bank of England Governor. Norman had appointed as the federation's chairman, Brigadier John Rawlings Rees, director of the Tavistock Psychiatric Clinic, chief psychiatrist and psychological warfare expert for the British intelligence services. Prescott was a director of the society in Connecticut; Carpenter was a director in Delaware.
Results 86 for "Mental Hygiene Society" Prescott Bush.
Results 85 for "Mental Hygiene Society" eugenics Yale.
Results 886 for DuPont "I.G. Farben".
Results 4,980 for "Standard Oil" Rockefeller "I.G. Farben".
Brown Brothers, with Averell Harriman, Rockefeller family, Standard Oil, DuPonts, Morgans and Fords contributed to the financing of the rise to the capacity of Adolph Hitler as from 1923 by serving d’outil to him financial.
Results 2,870 for "Henry Ford" "Adolph Hitler".
Ford Motor Co. charged in Nazi secret profits on slave labor
From Who Financed Hitler: The Secret Funding of Hitler's Rise to Power 1919-1933 by James Pool and Suzanne Pool (The Dial Press, 1978), pp 111, 129:

"That Henry Ford, the famous automobile manufacturer gave money to the National Socialists directly or indirectly has never been disputed," said Konrad Heiden, one of the first biographers of Hitler.[87] Novelist Upton Sinclair wrote in The Flivver King, a book about Ford, that the Nazis got forty-thousand dollars from Ford to reprint anti-Jewish pamphlets in German translations, and that an additional $300,00 was later sent to Hitler through a grandson of the ex-Kaiser who acted as an intermediary.[88] The US Ambassador to Germany, William E. Dodd, said in an interview that "certain American industrialists had a great deal to do with bringing fascist regimes into being in both Germany and Italy."[89] At the time of Dodd's criticisms, the general public was aware that he was speaking of Ford because the press made a direct association between Dodd's statements and other reports of Ford's anti-Semitism.
Henry Ford's reward from Hitler finally came in July 1938, when on his seventy-fifth birthday he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle. Ford was the first American and the fourth person in the world to receive this medal, which was the highest decoration that could be given to any non-German citizen. Benito Mussolini, another of Hitler's financiers, had been decorated with the same honor earlier that year.[128]
Results 190 for "Henry Ford" eugenics "Adolph Hitler".
Results 967 for "Henry Ford" eugenics.
Results 123 for "Henry Ford" "forced Sterilization"
Results 8,500 for "Henry Ford" "Nazi Germany".
Results 7,480 for "Henry Ford" "Auschwitz".
Results 6,540 for "Henry Ford" "The International Jew".
Results 1 - 100 of about 702 for "Henry Ford" "I.G. Farben"Hitler received a mild and comfortable prison sentence for his Bavarian revolutionary activities. The rest from more active pursuits enabled him to write Mein Kampf. Henry Ford's book, The International Jew, earlier circulated by the Nazis, was translated by them into a dozen languages, and Hitler utilized sections of the book verbatim in writing Mein Kampf.7

We shall see later that Hitler's backing in the late 20s and early 30s came from the chemical, steel, and electrical industry cartels, rather than directly from individual industrialists. In 1928 Henry Ford merged his German assets with those of the I.G. Farben chemical cartel. A substantial holding, 40 percent of Ford Motor A.G. of Germany, was transferred to I.G. Farben; Carl Bosch of I.G. Farben became head of Ford A.G. Motor in Germany. Simultaneously, in the United States Edsel Ford joined the board of American I.G. Farben. (See Chapter Two.)
It is these U.S. connections in Wall Street that concern us. Without the capital supplied by Wall Street, there would have been no I. G. Farben in the first place and almost certainly no Adolf Hitler and World War II.

German bankers on the Farben Aufsichsrat (the supervisory Board of Directors)1 in the late 1920s included the Hamburg banker Max War-burg, whose brother Paul Warburg was a founder of the Federal Reserve System in the United States. Not coincidentally, Paul Warburg was also on the board of American I. G., Farben's wholly owned U.S. subsidiary. In addition to Max Warburg and Hermann Schmitz, the guiding hand in the creation of the Farben empire, the early Farben Vorstand included Carl Bosch, Fritz ter Meer, Kurt Oppenheim and George von Schnitzler.2 All except Max Warburg were charged as "war criminals" after World War II.

In 1928 the American holdings of I. G. Farben (i.e., the Bayer Company, General Aniline Works, Agfa Ansco, and Winthrop Chemical Company) were organized into a Swiss holding company, i. G. Chemic (Inter-nationale Gesellschaft fur Chemisehe Unternehmungen A. G.), controlled by I. G. Farben in Germany. In the following year these American firms merged to become American I. G. Chemical Corporation, later renamed General Aniline & Film. Hermann Schmitz, the organizer of I. G. Farben in 1925, became a prominent early Nazi and supporter of Hitler, as well as chairman of the Swiss I. G. Chemic and president of American I. G. The Farben complex both in Germany and the United States then developed into an integral part of the formation and operation of the Nazi state machine, the Wehrmacht and the S.S.

I. G. Farben is of peculiar interest in the formation of the Nazi state because Farben directors materially helped. Hitler and the Nazis to power in 1933. We have photographic evidence (see page 60) that I.G. Farben contributed 400,000 RM to Hitler's political "slush fund." It was this secret fund which financed the Nazi seizure of control in March 1933. Many years earlier Farben had obtained Wall Street funds for the 1925 cartelization and expansion in Germany and $30 million for American I. G. in 1929, and had Wall Street directors on the Farben board. It has to be noted that these funds were raised and directors appointed years before Hitler was promoted as the German dictator.
Results 511 for "Edsel Ford" "I.G. Farben".
An important step on the road to world monopoly was the most far-reaching corporation invented by the Rothschilds. This was the international drug and chemical cartel, I.G. Farben. Called "a state within a state," it was created in 1925 as Interessen Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktien gesellschaft, usually known as I.G. Farben, which simply meant "The Cartel". It had originated in 1904, when the six major chemical companies in Germany began negotiations to form the ultimate cartel, merging Badische Anilin, Bayer, Agfa, Hoechst, Weiler-ter-Meer, and Greisheim-Electron. The guiding spirit, as well as the financing, came from the Rothschilds, who were represented by their German banker, Max Warburg, of M.M. Warburg Company, Hamburg. He later headed the German Secret Service during World War I and was personal financial adviser to the Kaiser. When the Kaiser was overthrown, after losing the war, Max Warburg was not exiled with him to Holland, instead he became the financial adviser to the new government.

Monarchs may come and go, but the real power remains with the bankers.

While representing Germany at the Paris Peace Conference, Max Warburg spent pleasant hours renewing family ties with his brother, Paul Warburg, who, after drafting the Federal Reserve Act at Jekyl Island, had headed the U.S. banking system during the war. He was in Paris as Woodrow Wilson's financial advisor.

I.G. Farben soon had a net worth of six billion marks, controlling some five hundred firms. Its first president was Professor Carl Bosch. During the period of the Weimar Republic, I.G. officials, seeing the handwriting on the wall, began a close association with Adolf Hitler, supplying much needed funds and political influence. The success of the I.G. Farben cartel had aroused the interest of other industrialists. Henry Ford was favorably impressed and set up a German branch of Ford Motor Company. Forty per cent of the stock was purchased by I.G. Farben. I.G. Farben then established an American subsidiary, called American I.G., in cooperation with Standard Oil of New Jersey. Its directors included Walter Teagle, president of Standard Oil, Paul Warburg of Kuhn Loeb & Company and Edsel Ford, representing the Ford interests. John Foster Dulles, for the law firm, Sullivan and Cromwell, became the attorney for I.G., frequently traveling between New York and Berlin on cartel business. His law partner, Arthur Dean, is now director of the $40 million Teagle Foundation which was set up before Teagle's death. Like other fortunes it had become part of the network. Like John Foster Dulles, Arthur Dean has been a director of American Banknote for many years; this is the firm which supplies the paper for our dollar bills. Dean also has been an active behind the scenes government negotiator, serving as arms negotiator at disarmament conferences. Dean was also a director of Rockefeller's American Ag & Chem Company. He was a director of American Solvay, American Metal and other firms. As attorney for the wealthy Hochschild family, who owned Climax Molybdenum and American Metal, Dean became director of their family foundation, the Hochschild Foundation. Dean is director emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Asia Foundation, International House, Carnegie Foundation, and the Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

In 1930, Standard Oil announced that it had purchased an alcohol monopoly in Germany, a deal which had been set up by I.G. Farben. After Hitler came to power, John D. Rockefeller assigned his personal press agent, Ivy Lee, to Hitler to serve as a full-time adviser on the rearmament of Germany, a necessary step for setting up World War II. Standard Oil then built large refineries in Germany for the Nazis and continued to supply them with oil during World War II. In the 1930s Standard Oil was receiving in payment from Germany large shipments of musical instruments and ships which had been built in German yards.

The dreaded Gestapo, the Nazi police force, was actually built from the worldwide intelligence network which I.G. Farben had maintained since its inception. Herman Schmitz, who had succeeded Carl Bosch as head of I.G., has been personal advisor to chancellor Brüning; when Hitler took over, Schmitz then became his most trusted secret counselor. So well concealed was the association that the press had orders never to photograph them together. Schmitz was named an honourary member of the Reichstag, while his assistant, Carl Krauch, became Göring's principal advisor in carrying out the Nazis' Four Year Plan. A business associate, Richard Krebs, later testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee, "The I.G. Farbenindustrie, I know from personal experience, was already, in 1934, completely in the hands of the Gestapo." This was a misstatement; the I.G. Farben had merely allied itself with the Gestapo.
Results 1,020 for "Sullivan and Cromwell" "I.G. Farben".
Results 478 for "John Foster Dulles" "Sullivan and Cromwell" "I.G. Farben".
Results 1,370 for "John Foster Dulles" "I.G. Farben".
Results 847 for "John Foster Dulles" "I.G. Farben" "Prescott Bush".
Results 1 - 100 of about 811 for "John Foster Dulles" eugenics.
In 1933, when Hitler seized power, Standard Oil New Jersey supplied Germany with the patents it required for tetraethyl lead aviation fuel. In 1936, the company Schroder, Rockefeller Investment Bankers, included board directors linked to the Gestapo and several European, Nazi-linked banks. It’s lawyers were John Foster Dulles and Allan Dulles, leading Wall Street fascists who drummed up American investments in Germany and elsewhere. The Dulles law firm represented I.G. Farben and Fritz Thyssen. Thyssen was Hitler’s biggest German financier. The Dulles brothers later became Secretary of State and CIA Director, respectively. ...

... In 1901, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research was created. In 1902, the General Education Board (GEB) began four decades of tremendously controversial influence over American schools and universities.

That same year, J.D. Rockefeller and Averell Harriman, a business partner of Prescott Bush and George Herbert Walker in Brown Brothers Harriman, gave $11 million to create the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Built on Manhattan property owned by the Dulles brothers, it spawned America’s ground-breaking “eugenics” research and the world’s first “racial hygiene” laws. By 1907, Rockefeller funding was heavily influencing America’s medical institutions. The Rockefeller Institute created the first genetics lab in 1909. The following year, the Eugenics Research Association and the Eugenics Records Office were founded near Cold Spring Harbor, New York, on land donated by the widow of Averell Harriman. In 1911, John Foster Dulles summed up eugenics, saying that by eliminating “the weakest members of the population” a purer race could be created.
Results 497 for "John Foster Dulles" "Max Warburg".
Results 279 for "John Foster Dulles" "Averill Harriman".
Results 51 for "John Foster Dulles" "Averill Harriman" "I.G. Farben".
Results 204 for "John Foster Dulles" "John McCloy" "I.G. Farben".
Results 97 for "John Foster Dulles" "John McCloy" Auschwitz.
Results 738 for "John Foster Dulles" "John McCloy".
Results 143 for "John Foster Dulles" "John McCloy" "Prescott Bush".
Results 328 for "Allen Dulles" "Max Warburg".
Results 244 for "Allen Dulles" "Max Warburg" "Prescott Bush".
Results 1,640 for "Allen Dulles" "I.G. Farben" "Prescott Bush".
Results 1,380 for "Allen Dulles" "Auschwitz" "Prescott Bush".
Results 408 for "Allen Dulles" "John McCloy" "Prescott Bush".
Results 253 for "Allen Dulles" "John McCloy" "Auschwitz".,17,02,harvardtoenronpt3.htm
After World War II, the permanent CIA was created under Allen Dulles, who had been an attorney with Sullivan & Cromwell on Wall Street--along with his brother, John Foster Dulles, who became Eisenhower's Secretary of State. Sullivan & Cromwell had been the law firm which had long represented the United Fruit Company. (4) The firm had acted on behalf of the Rockefellers in business and banking. Through Allen Dulles, the firm also represented investment banker Brown Brothers, Harriman interests beginning in 1936 to "dispose of Standard Oil investment stock," which had been combined with German chemical corporation I.G. Farben. Dulles also directed U.S. business affairs for Fritz Thyssen, Hitler's primary financial backer. (5) ...

... The Rockefellers used more than one law firm, depending on the type of legal work desired. Nelson Aldrich's old firm--called Murray, Aldrich & Webb in 1931--developed into Milbank Tweed Hadley & McCloy, and traditionally handled real estate matters. Standard Oil took its legal work to Sullivan & Cromwell--which was also United Fruit's attorney. Banking business for the Rockefellers was handled by Milbank Tweed. In 1947 Milbank hired John McCloy, whose legal career began at Cravath, Henderson & DeGersdorf--later called Cravath, Swaine & Moore. Cravath had long been the attorneys for investment bank Kuhn, Loeb (which handled Union Pacific's bond issues for E.H. Harriman at the close of the 19th century), and by the post-World War I years was handling syndication of war reconstruction loans for Europe. Kuhn Loeb, the investment banker for British investors in the syndicate, was noted for partners Otto Kahn, Jacob Schiff, an agent from the Rothschild bank, Felix and Max Warburg transplanted to New York from Hamburg, Germany, as well as Sir William Wiseman from Canada.

In the years after World War I, McCloy had noticed a shift in world investment. Whereas prior to the war, Cravath represented Europeans investing in American securities, after the war capital flowed in the other direction. McCloy was sent to Milan, Italy and traveled extensively throughout continental Europe--floating bonds in Europe to be sold in America--which McCloy considered a form of a private "Marshall Plan" to reconstruct post-war Europe. While in Europe McCloy socialized with Allen Dulles, Sullivan & Cromwell's man in Paris. McCloy's work in Europe was interrupted in 1931 to work on the "Black Tom" sabotage case, working closely with British intelligence--a case which did not end until 1941. After a decade of studying how the intelligence gathering agencies of other nations operated, McCloy returned to legal practice where his clients' goal was to reconstruct a world order with the United States as the dominant economic and military power. The shift from the Morgan and Kuhn Loeb banks to the Rockefeller empire exemplified this desire. So did McCloy's move from Cravath to Milbank Tweed, as well as his eventual chairmanship of the Chase Manhattan Bank.