Saturday, February 26, 2005

Charles Lindbergh, Alexis Carrel, Henry Ford -- More Nazi Stealth Agent Industrialists and Heros to Ponder

Charles Lindbergh, Alexis Carrel, Henry Ford


Uncommon Friends: Life with Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, Harvey Firestone, Alexis Carrel, and Charles Lindbergh

by James D. Newton
Paperback: 384 pages
Publisher: Harvest/HBJ Book (June 1, 1989)
ISBN: 0156926202


100 references to Carrel in this book:

1. on Page 129:
"... had as profound an effect on my life as Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, or Harvey Firestone . He was Alexis Carrel, a French surgeon who lived in America and who had been awarded the Nobel Prize in 1912 for his work ..."
2. on Page 130:
"... JAMES D. NEWTON to explore the fundamental nature of' man and his place in the universe. Moore responded to Carrel's ideas, and he wrote to ask if he might meet him. Carrel invited him to his office at the Rockefeller ..."
3. on Page 131:
"... or whom he looked forward to talking with in the afterlife. Early in our acquaintance I said to him, "Dr. Carrel, when I talk to people about you, they often ask me just exactly what you do-I mean, your work at ..."
4. on Page 132:
"... of the body. He learned ways to make tissues and cells grow and how to change their rate of growth. Carrel went on: "These experiments with cell and tissue culture gave us a great deal of information about how cells behave, ..."
5. on Page 133:
"... which would act like the heart and which would maintain the sterile environment around the organ. About ten years after Carrel resumed his laboratory studies, Charles Lindbergh joined him and designed a perfusion pump which did all that. This allowed him ..."
6. on Page 134:
"... an artificial heart, until an anesthesiologist, attending Anne Morrow Lindbergh at the birth of their child, had told him about Carrel's research. "Lindbergh came to see me at the Institute and I talked to him about organ perfusion and showed him ..."
7. on Page 135:
"... said, "Do you realize, Jim, what a powerful influence your testicles exert on your mind?" I'm sure I looked startled. Carrel had some definite ideas on sexuality, which I remembered from Man the Unknown. "He said we know that the removal ..."
8. on Page 136:
"... JAMES D. NEWTON iment at the Institute. I wore a black gown and mask just like Carrel's and those of his assistants. The walls and ceilings of the operating room were also black, so that nothing reflected ..."
9. on Page 137:
"... try to do so scientifically. This, at times, had produced some difficulties in the Institute , for if somebody interested Carrel in a topic such as parapsychology, he would attempt to design experiments to study it! His talk would swing through ..."
10. on Page 138:
"... room where we were sitting, a nook on the second floor of the Century Club and a favorite haunt of Carrel's. Secluded from the sounds of New York's traffic and little used by club members, it was a place where we ..."


13 references to nazis in this book:

1. on Page 29:
"... a very disturbed world-Gandhi 's civil disobedience campaign in India; Japan's military ambitions in Asia; the recent rise of the Nazi Party in Germany ; deadlock in the League of Nations over disarmament . But as they looked ahead, these men ..."
2. on Page 107:
"... stay for several days at the Dearborn Inn. This was during the "phony war," before the devastating blitzkrieg of the Nazi forces across Europe and the furious air battles over Britain. Henry Ford was chafing to do something to promote peace. ..."
3. on Page 185:
"... own security lay in allowing Hitler to clash with the Soviets. This was the end of April 1939, and the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact wasn't signed until late August. Hitler was not to invade the Soviet Union for another two years. Charles ..."
4. on Page 203:
"... know, because I may be a lifeline between America and France for my people. But I know how ruthless those Nazis are. Will you do something for me, if they hold me? Will you approach Charles Edison again, ask him to ..."
5. on Page 209:
"... after the liberation, finally stopped Carrel's work at the institute on the grounds there were suspicions of his being a Nazi collaborator. I told her I'd heard that, and Charles Lindbergh told me he had investigated the charges when he went ..."
6. on Page 231:
"... Britain and France such essential information about the buildup of German air power, some had begun to call him a Nazi sympathizer. "If you don't want to face facts," Charles remarked, "it's sometimes comforting to call the bearer of those facts ..."
7. on Page 235:
"... invasion of Norway and Denmark, followed by the thrusts against the Netherlands and Belgium. By the middle of May the Nazi war machine had breached the Maginot Line. I was at Lloyd Neck when it happened. Lindbergh was surprised by how ..."
8. on Page 236:
"... power was proving a powerful weapon in Europe , America had nothing to fear from it on this continent. The Nazi war machine was geared to attacking over short distances, and the Atlantic ocean gave America an immense advantage in the ..."
9. on Page 240:
"... come out in the open." Charles remained remarkably cool in the midst of dirtier and dirtier attacks on him-as a Nazi sympathizer, a traitor, and a dupe. Finally, at a press conference in April 1941, Roosevelt likened him to a "copperhead," ..."
10. on Page 242:
"... and sympathy for their persecution. He had said: "It's not difficult to understand why Jewish people desire the overthrow of Nazi Germany. The persecution they suffered in Germany would be sufficient to make bitter enemies of any race. No person with ..."


86 references to Ford in this book:

1. on Page 1:
"... in homes, in businesses, on city streets for a couple of minutes to mark the passing of Thomas Edison. Henry Ford, Harvey Firestone, and I stand in silence at a bay window of the Firestone apartment at the old Ritz-Carlton Hotel, ..."
2. on Page 5:
"... dirt over my shoulder I looked up, and there was Edison, ten feet from me, sitting in his Model T Ford with his assistant, Freddie Ott. His fine head topped by unruly gray hair, his piercing blue-gray eyes, bushy eyebrows, prominent ..."
3. on Page 6:
"... his bedroom , I was astonished to see him fully dressed, sitting on the porch. Freddie Ott had driven the Ford over the lawn to the steps outside his bedroom. "Let's go, Jimmie," he said, and climbed into the car. "Are ..."
4. on Page 9:
"... or three steps before the nightgown began to move. The Edisons' next-door neighbors in Fort Myers were Henry and Clara Ford. The two couples were close friends, though the Fords were much younger. They had joined the Edisons on McGregor Boulevard ..."
5. on Page 10:
"... work! Well, that boyhood idol became my manhood friend." Their friendship developed over the years. One expression of it was Ford's gift to Edison of the first car off each Ford assembly line; the first Model T, the first Model A, ..."
6. on Page 11:
"... photographed , so that the laboratory could be reconstructed in Greenfield Village exactly as it had been in Fort Myers. Ford even insisted that a foot of Florida soil underneath the building go with it. Ford asked Edison if he wanted ..."
7. on Page 12:
"... to take part in the conversation . He would rather do that than try to join in. After a while, Ford said, "I've brought these hearing aids for Mr. Edison." Mrs. Edison stood up and, leaning over her husband, said, "Mr. ..."
8. on Page 13:
"... one to send by telegraph signal, and she sent it." Being in Fort Myers was a working vacation for both Ford and Edison. Away from their pressures in Detroit and Orange , here they were in the relaxed climate of a ..."
9. on Page 14:
"... JAMES D. NEWTON cided that Ford ought to play golf too. He was not fully convinced, but he did go out with them and buy a ..."
10. on Page 15:
"... FRIENDS told him. The man's jaw dropped. "No kidding! Well, he got the straight goods on his truck this morning!" Ford liked activity. He liked to walk through Edison Park to watch our development work. Mother, who lived there, would sometimes ..."


110 references to Lindbergh in this book:

1. on Page 25:
"... YOU WESTERN PEOPLE ARE QUITE SENTIMENTAL. -EDISON The year before, in February 1928, Mrs. Edison sent a cable to Charles Lindbergh, inviting him to her husband's birthday on his way home from South America, where he was finishing a tour in ..."
2. on Page 108:
"... production chief, his son Edsel, and others, and they all agreed that the best man to advise them was Charles Lindbergh, who, beyond his intrepid transatlantic flight, had proved himself a brilliant aero engineer with wide experience of aircraft capabilities. Ford ..."
3. on Page 109:
"... UNCOMMON FRIENDS pany was manufacturing. But he accepted Lindbergh's invitation . After that, they put their heads together to develop air transportation, and their consultations led to the formation ..."
4. on Page 110:
"... had that information. Détroyat was in Washington, but about to return to France. Détroyat had come to the rescue of Lindbergh the night he had landed in Paris and been mobbed by the crowds. He and a few other French officers ..."
5. on Page 111:
"... Dearborn; it was there Ford was to produce the Liberator bomber. On the way back in the car, Ford asked Lindbergh if he would help them as a consultant in their aviation program . Lindbergh answered that he would like to ..."
6. on Page 133:
"... and which would maintain the sterile environment around the organ. About ten years after Carrel resumed his laboratory studies, Charles Lindbergh joined him and designed a perfusion pump which did all that. This allowed him to do research on various intact ..."
7. on Page 134:
"... doctors he'd talked to had seriously thought about the construction of an artificial heart, until an anesthesiologist, attending Anne Morrow Lindbergh at the birth of their child, had told him about Carrel's research. "Lindbergh came to see me at the Institute ..."
8. on Page 152:
"... just in case. Somehow , I managed to get the bull back to its corral. Later, when I told Charles Lindbergh about the episode, his only comment was, "I get the picture, but I'd have been a lot more scared of ..."
9. on Page 159:
"... death of Harvey Firestone, Carrel and I were having lunch together at the Rockefeller Institute when he suddenly said, "Charles Lindbergh is back for a short time in America. Before he goes back to England, I'd like to get you two ..."
10. on Page 160:
"... JAMES D. NEWTON get along fine." He paused and fixed me with his quizzical eyes. "I've known Lindbergh for about seven years now, and have the very highest regard for him. He is a genius: a brilliant technician, ..."


The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of "Defective" Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915

by Martin S. Pernick
Paperback: 328 pages
Publisher: Oxford University Press (April 1, 1999)
ISBN: 0195135393


192 references to eugenics in this book:

1. on Page 6:
"... surprisingly, men like Charles Davenport, Raymond Pearl, and Irving Fisher, leaders of the movement to "improve" human heredity known as eugenics, championed Haiselden's refusal to preserve supposedly hereditary defectives.' But remarkably, so did the celebrated blind and deaf advocate for the ..."
2. on Page 10:
"... 741 Diversey. The old building was retained as a residence for the hospital's nurses. 25 Haiselden traced his interest in eugenics to his childhood love of sports and to his reading of pioneer Harvard physical educator Dudley Sargent .2' The same ..."
3. on Page 13:
"... hidden dimensions of progressive-era American culture, in areas as diverse as medicine, motion pictures, education, journalism, politics, race, gender, ethics, eugenics, and euthanasia. They illuminate the history of American attitudes toward infants, the disabled, doctors, disease , and death; the impact ..."
4. on Page 14:
"... 14 WITHHOLDING TREATMENT applications of biology-eugenics and euthanasia. I will argue that the meanings of each movement were shaped by an intense struggle among many different ..."
5. on Page 15:
"... The Birth of a Coiitroversv 15 dealing with the unfit. To overlook the support for eugenic euthanasia in the late 1910s is to seriously skew the dimensions of both movements ." Both eugenics and euthanasia provided ..."
6. on Page 16:
"... the movement was not a completely indiscriminate filter-feeder, passively soaking up whatever values floated by in the surrounding culture .43 Eugenics selectively attracted those who shared its progressive faith in objectivity. In turn, they brought with them specific preferences and values ..."
7. on Page 17:
"... cases have scholars considered the role of the mass media in fostering such cycles. The periodic forgetting and rediscovery of eugenic euthanasia suggests that changing public awareness of many issues in medical ethics may be as closely related to changes in ..."
8. on Page 19:
"... 2 Contexts to the Conflict Before Baby Bollinger: Infanticide, Eugenics, and Euthanasia When he refused to operate on the Bollinger baby, Harry Haiselden became the first Western physician in modern ..."
9. on Page 21:
"... first publicly advocated killing or not treating defective newborns. These proposals marked the initial convergence of two increasingly important concepts, eugenics and euthanasia. The word "euthanasia," which previously had meant efforts to ease the sufferings of the dying without hastening their ..."
10. on Page 22:
"... his new device for humanely executing stray dogs and criminals as "euthanasia."' ° From the start, euthanasia occasionally overlapped with eugenics . An applied science and a popular crusade, eugenics sought to improve human heredity and eradicate hereditary disease. The term ..."


14 references to race betterment in this book:

1. on Page 46:
"... 1900s, belief in hereditary malleability remained evident well into the 1930s. Though one speaker told the 1914 National Conference on Race Betterment that Weismann's view had won "almost complete acceptance by biologists ," prominent University of Michigan pathologist Aldred Scott Warthin testified ..."
2. on Page 82:
"... Yale economist Irving Fisher and eugenic publicist Harry Laughlin echoed Davenport's disclaimer. At the 1914 and 1915 National Conferences on Race Betterment, America's first professedly eugenic national conventions, several noted speakers did bring up the question of eliminating those born with impairments. ..."
3. on Page 97:
"... for morality or feelings. "Science has long sneered at these qualities in men and women as weaknesses, arguing that for race betterment pity and sympathy must be suppressed," explained a Washington clergyman ." Even one of Haiselden's patient's parents saw the issue ..."
4. on Page 136:
"... organizations sponsored exhibitions, stage pageants, "better baby contests," and similar activities, including slide and filmstrip presentations such as the eight-part "Race Decline and Race Regeneration ," distributed by Dr. Weston A. ... have made any movies in this period was the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, Michigan, whose founding president Dr. John Harvey Kellogg was an early advocate of film propaganda. The ..."
5. from Back Matter:
"... and Phylogenv (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977); Robert Richards, The Meaning of Evolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992). 15. Race Betterment Conference Proceedings 1 (1914): -197, and 3 (1928): 88; Aldred Scott Warthin, Creed of a Biologist (New York: P. B. ..."
6. from Back Matter:
"... for Authority," esp. pp. 321 and 328, n. 48: Jones, Social Hygiene, p. 98. 20. Fisher in National Conference on Race Betterment, Proceedings 2 (1915): 64. Irving Fisher and Eugene Lyman Fisk, Host to Live, 12th ed. (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, ..."
7. from Back Matter:
"... Histoi7, of Inntelligeiice Testing (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992), esp. pp. 78-81. For similar use of bacteriology in Nazi race theory, see Proctor, Racial Hygiene. 62. Of fifteen Haiselden supporters ... racial prejudice . At the First National Conference on Race Betterment, both an advocate and an opponent of eugenics agreed it cvas an injustice to the Japanese to equate them with ..."
8. from Back Matter:
"... 74-76 217 ing Birthrate in Twentieth-Centun Britain (Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press, 1990). For typical comments on the race between progress and degeneration, see National Conference on Face Betterment, Proceedings 1 (1914): 432 (Kellogg); Proceedings 3 (1928), 86 (Warthin). For the allure of permanent solutions, see remarks of lr\,ing ..."
9. from Back Matter:
"... Difference and Pathology (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985). Chapter 4 1. Kuepper, "Euthanasia in America," p. 62; National Conference on Race Betterment, Proceedings 1 (1914): 500-501; 2 (1915): 89--90, addenda slip for p. 61. For the others, see C. W. Saleeby, 1 ..."
10. from Back Matter:
"... the bad as the good was a strategy denounced bN the prophet Isaiah. 85. On Galton, see National Conference on Race Betterment, Procecdin ,i,>s 2 (1915): 64; McKim, Heredity, p. 213. Warthin in ProceechrtgS 3 (1928): 86-90. 86. The phrase is David ..."


99 references to euthanasia in this book:

1. on Page 13:
"... of progressive-era American culture, in areas as diverse as medicine, motion pictures, education, journalism, politics, race, gender, ethics, eugenics, and euthanasia. They illuminate the history of American attitudes toward infants, the disabled, doctors, disease , and death; the impact of the ..."
2. on Page 14:
"... 14 WITHHOLDING TREATMENT applications of biology-eugenics and euthanasia. I will argue that the meanings of each movement were shaped by an intense struggle among many different groups who ..."
3. on Page 15:
"... The Birth of a Coiitroversv 15 dealing with the unfit. To overlook the support for eugenic euthanasia in the late 1910s is to seriously skew the dimensions of both movements ." Both eugenics and euthanasia provided assessments ..."
4. on Page 17:
"... film as powerful new forces in early-twentieth-century medical controversies. Historians long have noted the episodic nature of the debate on euthanasia, but only in the most recent cases have scholars considered the role of the mass media in fostering such cycles. ..."
5. on Page 19:
"... 2 Contexts to the Conflict Before Baby Bollinger: Infanticide, Eugenics, and Euthanasia When he refused to operate on the Bollinger baby, Harry Haiselden became the first Western physician in modern times to ..."
6. on Page 21:
"... advocated killing or not treating defective newborns. These proposals marked the initial convergence of two increasingly important concepts, eugenics and euthanasia. The word "euthanasia," which previously had meant efforts to ease the sufferings of the dying without hastening their death, now ..."
7. on Page 22:
"... pains seem even less tolerable, both for the sufferers and for those who empathized with them.' Most early discussion of euthanasia focused on cases of painfully and terminally ill adults who voluntarily chose to die. But ever since the earliest proposals ..."
8. on Page 23:
"... "cripples, high-grade cretins, idiots, and children with gross deformities" "should be quickly and painlessly destroyed ," a process he termed "euthanasia." "For the present we may leave the question open whether the consent of the parents should first be obtained," because ..."
9. on Page 24:
"... quarters." The plan was prominently reported in the Chicago papers, where it aroused concerned discussion. During 1906 legislative debates on euthanasia bills in Iowa and Ohio, well-known forensic psychiatrist Dr. Walter Kempster urged that any euthanasia law include "lunatics and idiots," ..."
10. on Page 29:
"... topic never before this widely debated. Their responses provide a completely unique glimpse at how public impressions of eugenics and euthanasia were constructed in this formative era. From newspapers, magazines, and professional journals, I compiled a list of 333 people who ..."


http://www.stockmaven.com/logsdon99.htm

Business and the Holocaust
Power, Ignorance, and Anti-Semitism:
Henry Ford and His War on Jews
by Jonathan R. Logsdon
In Six Parts

http://www.stockmaven.com/logsdon99_B.htm


http://www.stockmaven.com/logsdon99_C.htm


http://www.stockmaven.com/logsdon99_D.htm


http://www.stockmaven.com/logsdon99_E.htm


http://www.stockmaven.com/logsdon99_F.htm

Throughout the 1930's, The Ford Motor Company was notorious for its ruthless practices. Ford's chief investigator, Harry Bennett, had emerged as a major influence on company policy. Bennett created a Gestapo-like agency of thugs and spies to crack down on potential threats to Ford, such as union men. "To those who have never lived under a dictatorship," reflected one employee, "it is difficult to convey the sense of fear which is part of the Ford system."236 In 1937, Upton Sinclair presented a sinister depiction of the company in a book entitled Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America. The book, a combination of fact and fiction, told of a naive Ford easily influenced by such extremist groups as The Ku Klux Klan, The Black Legion, The Silver Shirts, The Crusader Whiteshirts, The American Liberty League, and The Anglo-Saxon Federation. His Dearborn Independent influences the main character Abner Shutt, to join The Klan and to teach his children to have nothing to do with "this evil race" known as Jews. Later, Nazis swarm at Ford and start a new anti-Semitic campaign. Ford finds all of this good, for he remains what he had been born, "a super-mechanic with the mind of a stubborn peasant."237

It is true that the Ford Motor Company was a haven for Nazi sympathizers. Detective Casmir Paler wrote to Professor Nathan Isaacs in 1937 that "Henry Ford and his subordinates Ernest G. Liebold, WJ. Cameron, and others have turned the Ford Motor Company Chemical Department into the headquarters of the Nazis here."238 Ford tool and die maker; John T. Wiandt, distributed literature of the pro-Nazi National Worker's League to his fellow Ford workers. "I have an audience every lunch hour," he proudly told an interviewer.239 Signs were left in various employee areas which proclaimed that "Jews are traitors to America and should not be trusted- Buy Gentile," "Jews destroy Christianity," and "Jews Control The Press."240 The American Nazi Party's first president, Heinz Spanknoebel, had been an employee at the Ford Motor Company. Fritz Kuhn, leader of the pro-Nazi German-American Bund, worked at Ford off and on from 1928 until 1936. Harry Bennett once confessed to the FBI that Kuhn had been caught during work hours "practicing speeches in a dark room. "241

To combat growing public criticism, The Ford Company issued a statement in 1937 which declared "that inasmuch as Mr. Ford has always extended to Ford employees the fullest freedom from any coercion with respect to their views on political, religious, or social activities, they cannot be reproved by us for exercising such liberties."242 Ford's active anti-Semitism had been quite disturbing throughout the 1920's. However; he was equally unsettling in the 1930's due to his passive behavior towards its consequences.

Ford courted further controversy through his business ventures in Germany. In 1938, The German Ford Motor Company opened a plant in Berlin whose "real purpose," according to U.S. Army Intelligence, was producing "troop transport-type" vehicles for the German Army. Ford, however; refused an offer to build aircraft engines in England.243 According to Harry Bennett, Ford became anti-British after he overheard Winston Churchill ridicule farming. However; he considered the German people to be "clean, thrifty, hard-working, and technologically advanced and he admired them for that."244 The German Ford worker's employee publication contained such propaganda as: "At the beginning of this year we vowed to give our best and utmost for final victory, in unshakable faithfulness to our Fuhrer. Today we say with pride that we succeeded."245 On Hitler's birthday in 1939, the German Ford Company sent him a gift of 50,000 marks as a token of its loyalty.246

Ford, however; received the loudest criticism for becoming the first, and only, American to be awarded the German Eagle Order. Hitler had created the award himself as the highest honor a foreigner could receive from the Nazi government. Ford shared his award with only four other men, including Mussolini. The award consisted of a Maltese cross studded with four eagles and four swastikas, and came with Hitler's personal congratulations. It was presented to Ford, in honor of his seventy fifth birthday, in July of 1938 by German consuls Fritz Heiler and Karl Kapp. Newspaper pictures of the event showed a smiling Ford shaking the Heiler's hand as Kapp pinned the award onto Ford's jacket.


The Car Connection

from the book
Trading with the Enemy
The Nazi - American Money Plot 1933-1949
by Charles Higham
Delacorte Press, 1983


Google.com Results 37 for "Gerhard Westrick" OR "Gerhardt Westrick" "Henry Ford" OR "Edsel Ford".



Google.com Results 80 for "Gerhard Westrick" OR "Gerhardt Westrick" nazi.



Google.com Results 45 for "Gerhard Westrick" OR "Gerhardt Westrick" ITT.



Google.com Results 41 for "Gerhard Westrick" OR "Gerhardt Westrick" "Sosthenes Behn".



Google.com Results 381 for "Black Legion" "General Motors" OR "Du Pont".



Google.com Results 7,240 for "Ku Klux Klan" "General Motors" OR "Du Pont".



Google.com Results 9 for "Wolverine Republican League" "General Motors" OR "Du Pont".



Google.com Results 10 for "Wolverine Republican League".



Google.com Results 531 for "American Liberty League" "General Motors" OR "Du Pont".



Google.com Results 35 for "Pinkerton Agency" "General Motors" OR "Du Pont".



excerpted from the book
Trading with the Enemy

The Nazi - American Money Plot 1933-1949
by Charles Higham
Delacorte Press, 1983


Google.com Results 125 for "Focke-Wulfs" ITT.



Google.com Results 356 for ITT "Focke-Wulf".



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Google.com Results 147 for ITT "Walter Schellenberg".



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Affidavit of Walter Schellenberg



Google.com Results 914 for ITT "Sosthenes Behn".



ITT Corporation -- Encyclopædia Britannica

... ITT was founded in 1920 by Sosthenes Behn and his brother Hernand Behn as a
holding company for their Caribbean-based telephone and telegraph companies; ...


Google.com Results 33 for "Gerhard Westrick" OR "Gerhardt Westrick" "Heinrich Albert".



Google.com Results 303 for "Heinrich Albert" Ford.



The Nation | Article | Ford and the Führer | Ken Silverstein

Keywords: Ford Motor Company; World War II. ... as acknowledged in a letter from
Heinrich Albert to Charles Sorenson, a top executive in Dearborn. ...

http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20000124&c=1&s=silverstein


http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20000124&c=2&s=silverstein


http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20000124&c=3&s=silverstein


http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20000124&c=4&s=silverstein


http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20000124&c=5&s=silverstein



Google.com Results 43 for "Gerhard Westrick" OR "Gerhardt Westrick" "General Motors" OR "Standard Oil".



Google.com Results 29 for "Gerhard Westrick" OR "Gerhardt Westrick" "William Donovan".