Monday, May 22, 2006

Google Groups: sci.environment

Google Groups: sci.environment

John Christy

Associate of known TASSC science-fraud felons Patrick J. Michaels, and Steve Milloy, also continuous association with felony fraud organized crime operation APCO Associates. Court records ordered to be publically posted online for the nation to see unequivically shows that TASSC was conceived as a criminal fraud operation by Philip Morris Tobacco and engaged in a years-long series of public deceptions using compliant science-hoaxers known as "whitecoats" by the crime masterminds and moneybags.

Christy uses the "TASSC METHOD" of inserting errors into the public record, which when caught are reluctantly retracted, but the false results are quoted endlessly into the future by collaborative operators.

[Background evidence passed through due process in a Federal Court of Law establishing the criminal fraud nature of TASSC has been ordered posted online on the internet by the judge so that every citizen can examine this evidence of fraud for themselves. The trial ended with $280,000,000,000 settlement by the tobacco paymasters, so this is hardly a trial which wasn't fought tooth & nail. This is a very partial listing of evidence. Links: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, ... Fred Singer Euro-TASSC 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, ... Heidelberg Appeal 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, ... Milloy TASSC 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, ...]


Satellite temperature record

Christy became famous as early as 1993 [creation of TASSC] for claiming the global temperature was actually decreasing based on the "more accurate" satellite data. But others over the years have shown errors in his interpretation of the data which has slowly and consistently increased his results. This is in addition to the improving accuracy of the short data set [4] (it begins in December 1978). In 1997 his testimony to the Committee on Environment and Public Works pointed out that his (and Dr. Roy Spencer's) data indicated a decrease in global temperature. Before the same committe in 2001, he stated it was at an increase that was "a rate less than a third that observed at the surface" at 0.045 C/decade and it showed "remarkable consistency between independent measurements [by radiosonde] of these upper air temperatures". In 2003 before the U.S. House Committee on Resources he stated his data was "less than half of the warming observed at the surface." In 2004 his published results showed a 0.08 C/decade increase. A new error in his interpretation of the data found in 2005 has now increased his results by 60% in only a year to 0.13 C/decade but he still claims "all radiosonde comparisons have been rerun and the agreement is still exceptionally good" [5] as was claimed in 2001 when his results were 1/3 as high as now.


Fri, May 19, 2006 10:35am EST

In new global warming special, Fox News interviews scientists with industry ties, records of misinformation

Fox News employs Executive Director of TASSC, Steve Milloy.

No reputable and law-abiding organization will have any TASSC fraudster on their payroll, or quote them, or give them a platform. Christy's affiliation with organizations employing TASSC fraudsters is beyond accidental coincidence.


Fri 1 Jul 2005

Significant errors found in global warming study

Posted by Tim Lambert under science

Thu 12 Aug 2004

"When my information changes, I change my opinion. What do you do, Sir?"

Posted by Tim Lambert under science


FACTSHEET: The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition, TASSC

--- KEY PEOPLE: S. Fred Singer, Science Advisor; Patrick J. Michaels, Science Advisor; Steven Milloy, Director/Founder of Advancement of Sound Science Coalition; Frederick Seitz, Science Advisor.

FACTSHEET: The Advancement of Sound Science Center, Inc., TASSC

--- KEY PEOPLE: Steven Milloy, Publisher, JunkScience.con; Bonner Cohen, Board of Directors.

FACTSHEET: Competitive Enterprise Institute, CEI

John Christy Contributing Writer

Steven Milloy Adjunct Analyst (TASSC)

FACTSHEET: John Christy


--- Competitive Enterprise Institute John Christy, Steven Milloy (TASSC)

--- Cato Institute KEY PEOPLE: Patrick J. Michaels, Senior Fellow, Environmental Studies (TASSC); S. Fred Singer, Editorial Advisory Board (TASSC); Steven Milloy, Adjunct Scholar (TASSC); John Christy, Conference Speaker; Robert C. Balling Jr., Conference Speaker; Richard Lindzen, Contributing Writer, Reason Magazine.

--- Independent Institute KEY PEOPLE: David R. Legates, former Research Fellow; Frederick Seitz, Research Fellow (TASSC); S. Fred Singer, Research Fellow (TASSC); John Christy, Panel on Global Warming

Graphic of key relationships with John Christy and Competitive Enterprise Institute and TASSC Fraudsters and other key operatives.

  • --- John Christy contributed to a book by CEI-TASSC Fraudster Patrick J. Michaels. Google Results about 77 for "John Christy" Shattered Consensus : The True State of Global Warming.

  • Table of contents for Shattered consensus : the true state of global warming / edited by Patrick J. Michaels.

  • --- John Christy is used on the book cover and sales pitch for a book published by Competitive Enterprise Institute, authored by Ronald Bailey (CEI Adjunct Analyst), Global Warming and Other Eco Myths: How the Environmental Movement Uses False Science to Scare Us to Death

  • --- Google has 120 links to website using John Christy's "erroneous data", and has not corrected them or retracted them. Google Results about 120 from for "John Christy" "Patrick J. Michaels" | "Competitive Enterprise Institute".

  • --- John Christy is used on the book cover and sales pitch for a book published by Cato Institute, authored by Cato-CEI-TASSC Fraudster Patrick J. Michaels. Meltdown : The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians, and the Media.

  • --- TASSC operative S. Fred Singer's SEPP website has 35 webpages with Christy's erroneous data, which has never been corrected or retracted. Google Results 1 - 35 from for "John Christy" SEPP.

  • --- TASSC operative Frederick Seitz, and longtime partner with Singer in SEPP, was president of the George C. Marshall Institute. Google Results 7 from for "John Christy" Marshall Institute. Webpages propagating 'erroneous" data from John Christy have never been corrected or retracted.

  • --- TASSC operative Steve Milloy's Junkscience website has Christy's Junk Science. Google Results 45 from for "John Christy". Webpages propagating "erroneous" junk science from John Christy have never been corrected or retracted.

    --- Heartland Institute controlled website connects John Christy to a known TASSC Organized Crime operation, APCO Associates -- -- With TASSC Singer, TASSC Michaels, and TASSC Seitz involvement. APCO created TASSC as a fraud operation, and still maintains ties with the operative "whitecoats".
  • --- CEI-Registered website has 40 webpages with John Christy's "erroneous" data. Google Results about 40 from for "John Christy". Webpages propagating "erroneous" junk science from John Christy have never been corrected or retracted.

  • --- CEI-Registered website sitemap has two links that go off-site to TASSC-Ally Fred Seitz's old lair at George C. Marshall Institute: Brief Synopsis of the Global Warming Issue, and Guide to Global Warming - Questions and Answers on Climate Change. The pretends that "Consumer Alert" still exists, but the link is a dead parked page. Further down the page "National Consumer Coalition" link leads to the same dead parked page. They are not even trying to keep up appearances of all their phoney front operations any more. They do have a link to their roots as tobacco fraudsters from the Good Old Days, in The Smoker's Club website, with Competitive Enterprise Institute clearly on the bottom of the page. Who knows how many more fly-by-night websites they have out there posing as citizen's groups and grassroots coalitions?

Saturday, May 20, 2006

Wunder Blog : Weather Underground

Wunder Blog : Weather Underground

Posted By: ForecasterColby at 10:16 PM GMT on May 19, 2006.

CO2 has been many times higher at previous points in earth's history. Guess what? The planet is still here. Life adapted. And it will again. If you want to talk climate change, we're actually in almost the COOLEST time in Earth's history.

A due diligent search for CO2 levels going back 600,000 years is unable to find any global levels higher than today. The historical record is still being searched further back in time, and science is not finished yet. Nothing in 600,000 years supports any claim that CO2 was higher and that life was peachy with higher CO2.

"If you want to talk climate change, we're actually in almost the COOLEST time in Earth's history."

Are you under the impression that Earth is "cooler" now than 13,000 years ago when ice sheets still covered vast portions of the Northern hemisphere, and wooly mammouths roamed the norther plains? What a strange definition of "cooler" you have.

"CO2 is an essential gas for life. Now some people who can't look at the data say it's going to kill us all. Imagine if people believe them - how many things would be needlessly retricted then?"

You are quoting from an advertisement produced by an organization funded by Exxon Oil, Koch Oil and Scaife Oil fortune money. It is pure propaganda with no truthful contents.

Water is an essential of life too, but the chief loss of life from hurricanes is not wind damage but excess water flooding. Anything in excess is deadly -- would you prefer to be crushed to death by ten tons of lead or ten tons of feathers, or does it make any difference which ten tons crushes you to death? Feathers are not light when there are ten tons of them.

The organization which produced this television advertisement is known to be involved in felony fraud deceptions of the body politic. Every single one of the chief perpetrators is known to be associated with multiple criminal fraud activities. In some cases the funders come from organized crime families stretching back two, three and four generations.

Scaife's money, as an example comes from family investments in Spindletop that produced Gulf Oil Corporation. The forefather banker Mellon was involved in the mass killing of 2,209 souls at the Johnstown Flood. Scaife became a Rockefeller-in-law by corporate marriage in 1984 when Gulf Oil was merged into Chevron, thereby trading in his Gulf Oil stocks for Chevron Oil stocks.

Koch Oil has been one of the pollutingest corporations in America, and that goes back a generation to father Fred Koch who co-founded the John Birch Society. It's not hard to find out the story of the Koch Industries: just ask google:
Results 1 - 100 of about 41,600 for Koch Industries Fined.
Results 1 - 100 of about 97,400 for Koch Industries Organized Crime.

Exxon was born in crime, with a history of frauds that go back to the 1870s with John D. Rockefeller's many illegal actions and creating numerous corporate front operations to conceal the subversion of America he accomplished. Rockefeller was also involved in mass destruction of life with 2,000 souls lost in the Standard Oil War with The Pennsylvania Railroad in 1877. History has been completely whitewashed about the corporate warfare underlying this tragedy. In 1914 Rockefeller sent in his gunmen with four machineguns spraying bullets for four hours into a striker's camp killing men, wives and children in the Ludlow Massacre. Two days later US marines were spraying machineguns in Tampico, Mexico, putting down those uppity people who threatened interference with two of Standard Oil businesses there.

WHO PAID FOR THIS BRAINWASH AD? Competitive Enterprise Institute.
Competitive Enterprise Institute has received $1,735,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.
Koch Oil Grants to CEI = $666,420.
Scaife Oil Fortune Grants to CEI = $1,800,000.

Wholly controlled front operation owned by CEI: Consumer Alert
Consumer Alert has received $70,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.
Funded by Exxon, Amoco, Chevron, Philip Morris, and American Petroleum Institute, Texaco, Texaco Foundation...

CEI spawned Consumer Alert which spawned COOLER HEADS COALITION as a fossil fuel astroturf front operation.
This astroturf group calls global warming science "scare stories" and funds the Web site, with a bi-weekly update called "May Cooler Heads Prevail." Consumer Alert's networking project, the National Consumer Coalition, formed the so-called Cooler Heads Coalition in May, "to dispel the myths of global warming." Cooler Heads is run by a vice president from the Competitive Enterprise Institute, a longtime sponsor of the Wise Use movement. Funded by: American Cyanamid, Chemical Manufacturers Association, Chevron, Monsanto, Philip Morris, and other big corporations.[source]

Saturday, August 13, 2005

Yahoo! Groups : Palaces4People Messages : Message 1119 of 1123

Yahoo! Groups : Palaces4People Messages : Message 1119 of 1123

Bill Gates is found to possess more than three of the defining characteristics which are required for a definition of SOCIOPATHY.

  • failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
  • deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure
  • impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
  • aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults
  • reckless disregard for safety of self or others

  • consistent irresponsibility
  • lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

  • I count Deceitfulness, Conning, Irresponsibility, Unlawful Behaviors, Lack of Remorse... it only takes three, and I see four verified by judicial evidence which has passed due process of law and is without dispute. If using surrogates, like AdTI or TSCOG is counted as "using aliases", that's one more confirmation of the diagnosis.

    You might want to familiarize yourself with the consequences of unrestrained SOCIOIPATHY by reading a recent book...

    The Sociopath Next Door: The Ruthless Versus the Rest of Us

    by Martha Stout

    • Hardcover: 256 pages
    • Publisher: Broadway (February 8, 2005)
    • ISBN: 076791581X

    You might also want to understand that corporations, are by law, without conscience and borderline SOCIOPATHIC organizations from inception, which require firm social restraints to keep them from slipping over into the "dark side".

    You might then also read another recent book...

    The Corporation : The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power

    by Joel Bakan

    • Hardcover: 240 pages
    • Publisher: Free Press (March 10, 2004)
    • ISBN: 0743247442

    An excerpt from Chapter 4 is on my website here.

    Another book, $24.95 value, free (PDF) download from the publisher's website is...

    Gangs of America: The Rise of Corporate Power and the Disabling of Democracy

    by Ted Nace

    • Hardcover: 300 pages
    • Publisher: Berrett-Koehler Publishers (July, 2003)
    • ISBN: 1576752607

    Wednesday, July 13, 2005

    GrokLaw - The Stupidest Lawsuit Since the World Began

    GrokLaw - The Stupidest Lawsuit Since the World Began -- reply to MARBUX

    Phewww!! Marbux, that was a mouthful.

    It so happens that I am down on the sick rolls this year, so I get to do research and intellectual work for a change. It started with reading about the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz last January, but led by a devious path through the Haymarket Riot of 1886, the Johnstown Flood of 1889, the bloody Homestead Strike of 1992, the Ludlow Massacre of 1914. It took reading hundreds of obscure and out-of-print books to follow these threads to Auschwitz and the president's grandfather and great-grandfathers.

    IF Cyrus McCormick had decided to give an 8-hour day to his workers in Chicago in 1886, the chances that Auschwitz would have never existed were high. IF the negligent killers who took 2,209 lives with the Johnstown Flood had been punished with prison sentences then Auschwitz was doubtful to come into existence. As it was Henry Clay Frick and Andrew Carnegie were never prosecuted for the Johnstown Flood, so three years later in 1892 they were in position to copy the McCormick script at Homestead Steel works.

    Homestead had some innovations which became the script for the Ludlow Massacre of 1914. Importation of armed "detectives" as plant guards to defend imported strike-breaker workers; provocations to violence of the workers threatened with job losses due to asking for RETURN of the 8-hour work-shift recently put up to 12-hours (with a 6 and 1.2 day workweek); use of state and federal troops to selectively enforce ONLY the civil rights of the wealthy.

    In 1889, while the South Fork resort dam was bursting over Johnstown, young Harold and Stanley McCormick were beginning their studies in the private exclusive school of only 25 students established by the Standard Oil brother-partners John D. & William Rockefeller in NYC. Classmates and cousins, John D. Jr. and Percy learned lessons about Haymarket from the McCormick kids -- it must have been some exciting tales to tell about using government power to throttle labor discussed by these teenagers.

    By the time that US Steel was formed and needed Rockefeller's Mesabi Ore properties, John. D. Junior was filling his father's shoes and involved in the negotiations -- that's where he met Frick (killer of 2,209 souls at Johnstown and author of the Homestead Bloodbath). As labor relations mentor, Frick met JDR Junior on a number of occasions, so the Ludlow Massacre was a close match to the script of the Homestead event: imported armed "detectives" as plant guards to defend imported strike-breaker workers; provocations to violence of the workers threatened with job losses due to asking an 8-hour work-shift; use of state and federal troops to selectively enforce ONLY the civil rights of the wealthy.

    The whitewashers of history which obscene wealth can afford to buy have done their bit. Even Howard Zinn, the only historian to ever connect Ludlow and the simultaneous invasion of Vera Cruz, Mexico, failed to connect all the threads. By 1914 it was still not too late to head off Auschwitz, although the event was already in process. At the same time that Rockefellers (Senior and Junior) were negotiating with Frick over sale of the Mesabi Ore properties, way back in 1903, they were already pouring millions of dollars into Eugenics endowments which would be nursed into Mengele standing on the ramps at Auschwitz selecting who would live for a while and who died within the hour. Nobody could see that clearly yet, not even the Rockefellers and Carnegie creating the Eugenics Records Office.

    By 1914 Harold McCormick was married to one of JDR Junior's cousins across the street. Another of William Rockefeller's offspring had married M. Harley-Dodge and brought Remington Arms into the clan powerbase. 1914 was ripe for exercising power to subdue labor's desires for a decent life.

    JDR Junior was not going to decrease the workload or increase the pay or improve the safety. He said at a congressional hearing that he was willing to spend $1,000,000 to destroy the union two weeks before the Ludlow Massacre. In 1913 the Phelps-Dodge mine at Dawson, New Mexico, owned by cousin-in-law & Remington Arms Company owner Hartley-Dodge, blew up, killing 263 workers. The safety record of the times was poor, and workers had legitimate grievences.

    Non-union western mines had twice the fatality record of eastern unionized mining states, and quadruple the fatalities of European mines of that time. Workers had grievences, but even US unionized mines had a serious distance to catch up to European practices.

    By 1914 the Eugenics offices were passing laws and gaining momentum -- Auschwitz was more probable. The conditions of worker housing at Auschwitz and Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron properties were not greatly different. There was the 12 hour workday; there was the barbed-wire enclosures around the camps, access-controlled by hostile armed camp guards; there was the miserable housing accomodations; there was totalitarian political control over the districts.

    CFI was not Auschwitz, but the minds of the crime lords were still being fixed into a bent which would lead now inevitably to Auschwitz. Compare at the same time the wages and conditions at the flagship business, Standard Oil of New Jersey, which had pensions, had the 8-hour workday, had wages sufficient to afford home ownership of the workers.

    Compare future-fascist Henry Ford of 1914, who installed the 8-hour workday and the five dollar daily wage (40% higher than a $3/day wage-slave at Colorado Fuel and Iron working 12-hour days). The death rate for miners in this era was higher than the mortality figures for soldiers who fought in WWI, and that higher deathrate was concentrated in the non-unionized segments disproportionately.

    George Bush's great-grandfather's enter this story a touch later, although Samuel Bush had been 6 years already as president of Buckeye Steel Castings Company, following the 3 years of Frank Rockefeller's presidency. Buckeye Steel also had the 12-hour workday, 6.5 day workweek at this time period. The percentage of the NY Rockefeller's control of Buckeye has never been researched and established, but Sam Bush was shortly to be transferred to the War Industries Board, Small Arms procurment division in 1917, where he helped insure that 50% of all allied small arms were Remington brand and 69% of all ammo used was also.

    By 1926, when Sam's son Prescott took up work at 37 Broadway, next door to 25 Broadway where Remington Arms was headquartered and across the street from 26 Broadway where Rockefeller Junior's office at Standard Oil was located, Auschwitz was already guranteed. Prescott's employer was Fritz Thyssen, who had already been funding Adolph Hitler for two years by then.

    The history whitewashers have falsified history: businessmen see nothing wrong with hiring a lawyer or other representation to negotiate deals for them. Rockefellers used Henry Clay Frick to negotiate the sale of the Mesabi Ore properties to J.P. Morgan and US Steel. Workers hire representation to negotiate on their behalf, called unions, to get a better deal then they might get individually. In both classes there are abuses, there are stories to tell of egregious events.

    As a general principle, hiring skilled qualified representation has been beneficial for the party paying the bill. It should not be mocked as a failed practice, as it has served, and continues to serve, society well.

    I have a quote from a book: Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil, by Ron Rosenbaum, ISBN: 0679431519. It describes the technique used at Haymarket, used at Homestead, used at Ludlow, used at Auschwitz.

    "Consider a fascinating address Hitler made to party insiders in April 1937 ... In his speech to a regional Nazi Party meeting, Hitler "addressed himself to the Jewish question [and] referred contemptuously to the insistent demands within the party for more action against the Jews." ... He assures them no one is more qualified to think about the disposition of the Jews -- he knows where he's going, but he must employ Machiavellian tactical considerations to make sure he gets there: "The final aim of our whole policy is quite clear for all of us", Hitler says.

    Always I am concerned only that I do not take any step from which I will perhaps have to retreat, and not to take a step that will harm us. I tell you that I always go to the outermost limits of risk. but never beyond. For this you need to have a nose more or less to smell out: "What can I still do." . . . In a struggle against an enemy[,] I do not summon an enemy with force to fight. I don't say: "Fight!" because I want to fight. Instead I say. "I will destroy you! And now, Wisdom, help me to maneuver you into the corner that you cannot fight back. and then you get the blow right in the heart."

    It's a passage in which Hitler seems to be confiding to his insiders exactly the exoteric-esoteric two-track strategy ... There is no doubt, no hesitation, no wavering around his final goal: the destruction of the enemy. But he discloses to his confidants his intention to conceal from outsiders, from the enemy, the ultimate goal in order to take, one after another, cautious, intermediate steps toward it. Steps that will appear hesitant only to those not in the know: caution that will seem like trepidation only to those it's designed to deceive.

    Maneuvered into a corner, defenseless, and than "the blow to the heart". The whole nation of Germany was done thusly. The whole world. The workers at McCormick got the blow to the heart, then the workers at Homestead. Machine guns (eight of them) delivered the blows to the heart in the Colorado coalfieds -- used machine guns brought in from the bloody Paint Creek and Cabin Creek West Virginia labor strife of 1912-1913, operated by the same hired gunmen. They got the blow to the heart too.

    The federal government sent in troops to "restore order", which meant protect strikebreakers, and nullify the right to hire representation of one's choice at Ludlow. Smedley Butler's marines were already by then sent into Vera Cruz (Tampico) with machine guns, and Jack London described the (Standard Oil) interests they were killing over:

    Smedley Butler would report in 1934 and 1935 to a congressiona investigation that he had been wooed to lead a coup d'etat to overthrow democracy during 1933-1934. He was promised unlimited Remington Arms support (by now owned by the Du Pont family) and up to $300,000,000 financing pledged. The blow to the heart.

    Why shouldn't they feel that Smedley would fight for their interests? He had for 31 years. Here's what he said later (after delivering many a blow to the heart on behalf of his bosses):

    I spent thirty-three years and four months in active service in the country's most agile military force, the Marines. I served in all ranks from second Lieutenant to Major General. And during that period I spent most of my time being a high-class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.

    I suspected I was just part of a racket at the time. Now I am sure of it. Like all members of the military profession I never had an original thought until I left the service. My mental faculties remained in suspended animation while I obeyed the orders of the higher-ups. This is typical with everyone in the military service.

    Thus I helped make Mexico, and especially Tampico, safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank [Rockefeller-controlled] boys to collect revenue in. I helped in the raping of half-a-dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. The record of racketeering is long. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers and Co. in 1909-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the sugar interests in 1916. I helped make Honduras "right" for American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went its way unmolested.

    During those years, I had, as the boys in the back room would say, a swell racket. I was rewarded with honors, medals, and promotion. Looking back on it, I feel that I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate a racket in three city districts. The Marines operated on three continents.


    American troops delivered that blow to the heart to labor on three continents, including Homestead in Pennsyvania, including Chicago, including Ludlow in Colorado. What American labor achieved was not through thuggery but in defiance of thuggery. One to every two-dozen people is a sociopath, willing to spin distortions of history to keep the gangsters of capitalism in position to deliver a never-ending series of blows to the heart.

    Thursday, April 28, 2005

    The Corporation : The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power -- Democracy Ltd. (Chapter 4)

    The Corporation : The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power -- Democracy Ltd. (Chapter 4):

    "They were willing to put up $300,000,000 to overthrow Democracy in the US in 1934...

    The Corporation : The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power -- Democracy Ltd. (Chapter 4)

    The Corporation : The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power -- Democracy Ltd. (Chapter 4)

    They were willing to put up $300,000,000 to overthrow Democracy in the US in 1934...

    The Corporation
    The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power

    by Joel Bakan

    * Hardcover: 240 pages
    * Publisher: Free Press (March 10, 2004)
    * ISBN: 0743247442

    Democracy Ltd. (Chapter 4)

    As institutional psychopaths, corporations are wont to remove obstacles that get into their way. Regulations that limit their freedom to exploit people and the natural environment are such obstacles, and corporations have fought, with considerable success over the last twenty years, to remove them. Through lobbying, political contributions, and sophisticated public relations campaigns, they and their leaders have turned the political system and much public opinion against regulation. The law's ability to protect people and the environment from corporate harm has suffered as a result. Business opposition to regulation did not begin in the current era, however. It can be traced back to the origins of the regulatory state itself. Surely, the most bizarre moment in its history was when a group of leading bankers and corporate executives conspired to overthrow President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who they believed had gone too far with his regulatory ambitions, and replace him with a fascist dictator. The story reads like a pulp fiction thriller, but it really happened. Shortly after becoming president of the United States in the spring of 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt created the New Deal, a sweeping and

    page 86

    unprecedented set of regulatory laws and agencies that aimed to strengthen government's control of big corporations and banks. The New Deal reflected Roosevelt's conviction that the Great Depression would end only once the market's invisible hand was replaced by the very visible, and benevolent, hand of government. In that spirit, Roosevelt signed into law, among other things, new rights and protections for workers, debt relief for farmers, and fairness and transparency guarantees for investors. He later described his creation as follows:

    The word "Deal" implied that the Government itself was going to use affirmative action to bring about its avowed objectives rather than stand by and hope that general economic laws would attain them. The word "New" implied that a new order of things designed to benefit the great mass of our farmers, workers and business men would replace the old order of special privilege in a nation which was completely and thoroughly disgusted with the existing dispensation . . . we were not to be content with merely hoping for . . . [constitutional] ideals. We were to use the instrumentalities and powers of Government actively to fight for them . . . because the American system visualized protection of the individual against the misuse of private economic power, the New Deal would insist on curbing such power.[1]

    Inevitably the New Deal did just that -- it curbed corporations' freedoms and powers. Though many business leaders agreed with Roosevelt that the New Deal was necessary to save capitalism from itself, especially at a time of rising labor militancy and a collapsing economy, others were enraged, and believed that Roosevelt's plan would undermine American capitalism. Which is why a group of them plotted to overthrow his government.

    On August 22, 1934, a little more than a year into Roosevelt's presidency and three days after Adolf Hitler had officially become

    Page 87

    Fuhrer of Germany, Smedley Darlington Butler, a former U.S. Marines general, and one of the nation's most honored and decorated military men, entered the lobby of the Bellevue Hotel in Philadelphia. A man named Gerald MacGuire, a World War I veteran who sold bonds for a living, was waiting to meet him. After a brief exchange of pleasantries, MacGuire told Butler he had been sent by a group of businessmen to ask the general to raise an army, seize the White House, and install himself as fascist dictator of the United States.[2]

    Many business leaders at the time found fascism attractive, especially when they compared it to the "class hatred . . . preached from the White House," as Herbert Hoover characterized Roosevelt's New Deal. Benito Mussolini and Hitler had slashed the public debt, curbed inflation, driven down wages, and taken control of the trade unions in Italy and Germany, respectively. Roosevelt, on the other hand, had turned traitor to his class, they believed, and was now bent on destroying American capitalism. In its luly 1934 issue. Fortune magazine extolled the virtues of fascism and the economic miracles wrought by Mussolini. Laird Goldsborough, the man who produced the issue, wrote, "The good journalist must recognize in Fascism certain ancient virtues of the race, whether or not they happen to be momentarily fashionable in his own country.[3]

    Indeed, at the time, some major American corporations were reaping substantial profits by working for Adolf Hitler. Adam Opel AG, a German automobile maker owned and controlled by General Motors (which, at the time, was controlled by the Du Pont family), was, with the help of GM executives, transformed in 1937 into an armaments concern. If manufactured trucks for the German Army, including three-ton "Opel Blitz" trucks, a crucial part of the blitzkrieg attacks on Poland, France, and the Soviet Union. It also built aircraft components, including engines for the Luftwaffe's Junker "Wunderbomber".[4] A recent GM television commercial boasts of the role of GM trucks in building roads and bridges to support the Allied

    page 88

    campaigns during World War II -- "some people say we were paving the road to victory," the ad states -- but neglects to mention that the company helped build trucks for the enemy's armies as well.

    IBM-a company where "if your customer needs help, you jump," according to lrving Wladawsky-Berger, vice president, technology and strategy -- jumped when Hitler sought its technical assistance in running the Nazi extermination and slave-labor programs. IBM provided the Nazis with Hollerith tabulation machines, early ancestors of computers that used punch cards to do their calculations. Edwin Black, author of IBM and the Holocaust, says, "The head office in New York had a complete understanding of everything that was going on in the Third Reich with its machines . . . that their machines were in concentration camps generally, and they knew that Jews were being exterminated." IBM technicians serviced the machines, IBM engineers trained their users, and IBM supplied punch cards for the machines, according to Black, at least until 1941, when the United States declared war on Germany.[5]

    IBM's motivation for working with the Nazis, says Black, "was never about Nazism . . . it was always about profit," which is consistent with the corporation's amoral nature. Corporations have no capacity to value political systems, fascist or democratic, for reasons of principle or ideology. The only legitimate question for a corporation is whether a political system serves or impedes its self-interested purposes. According to Peter Drucker -- who says he "discussed it more than once with old Mr. Watson," the head of IBM at the time -- Thomas Watson had reservations about working with the Nazis'. "Not because he thought it was immoral," says Drucker, but "because Watson, with a very keen sense of public relations, thought it was risky" from a business perspective. In a similar spirit, Alfred Sloan, Jr., chairman of General Motors in 1939, seemed morally unconcerned about his company's work for the Nazis. The German subsidiaries were "highly profitable," he noted in defense of GM's investments in

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    Germany, and Germany's internal political affairs "should not be considered the business of the management of General Motors."[6] Though the assistance provided to the Nazis by U.S. corporations may seem shocking in retrospect, it should not be forgotten that many U.S. corporations today regularly do business with totalitarian and authoritarian regimes-again, because it is profitable to do so.[7]

    Looking back on the 1930s, a time when some top American corporations unabashedly worked with fascist dictators and many businesspeople believed that the federal government was threatening the capitalist system, one can at least comprehend why a cabal of leading businessmen would hatch a plot to turn the country into a fascist dictatorship. Removing democracy likely seemed a defensible business plan, from their perspective, because democracy threatened to undermine the corporation's mission. And Smedley Butler was the obvious person for the fob of removing it-or at least that is what MacGuire and his backers thought.

    Butler had been a lifelong Republican and was a charismatic public speaker. A celebrated military hero-one of only four men to be decorated with the coveted Congressional Medal of Honor twice -- the general had spent most of his military career protecting American business interests throughout Asia and Central America. He was also adored by veterans, for whom he had fought for better treatment and more generous benefits from government. Butler seemed ideally positioned to raise an army of veterans and lead them on a campaign to seize the White House.

    MacGuire and Butler had already met several times before the Bellevue Hotel meeting. A year earlier, MacGuire had invited himself to Butler's Philadelphia home, claiming to be a representative of concerned veterans, and asked the general to deliver a speech at an upcoming American Legion convention. The speech, a copy of which MacGuire had with him, was designed to rally the veterans against Roosevelt's decision to abandon the gold standard, which,

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    once done, would cost the banks dearly. Butler, confused about why veterans should be concerned with the gold standard, had refused MacGuire's request. A few months later, in September 1933, MacGuire had found Butler again, this time in New Jersey, where the general was delivering a speech to a Legion branch. The two men had met in Butler's hotel room, where MacGuire had once again pleaded with the general to deliver the gold standard speech at the Chicago convention. According to Butler, MacGuire scattered a mass of $1,000 bills on the bed and invited him to use them to finance his trip to Chicago. "You put that money away before somebody walks in here and sees that money around," Butler recalled telling MacGuire, "because I do not want to be tied up with it at all."[8]

    When the two men met at the Bellevue Hotel several weeks later, Butler had already acquired the names and affiliations of the men MacGuire purported to represent, mainly from MacGuire himself. There was, Butler later stated, Grayson Murphy, head of a leading Wall Street brokerage firm and a director of Morgan Guaranty Trust, as well as of Anaconda Copper, Goodyear Tire, and Bethlehem Steel. Robert dark, a wealthy banker whom Butler had actually met after demanding MacGuire produce some of his backers and who had told Butler that he was prepared to spend half of his $30 million fortune to protect the other half from Roosevelt, was another alleged backer of the plot, as was John Davis, the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for president in the 1924 election and later an attorney at J. P. Morgan & Co.

    The meeting at the Bellevue Hotel took place in the closed-down hotel cafe at a table tucked away in a remote corner. MacGuire began by telling Butler that he had spent the past six months in Europe.

    Butler recalled the rest of the conversation as follows:

    He said, "I went abroad to study the part that the veteran plays in the various set-ups of the governments that they have abroad. I

    page 91

    went to Italy for two or three months and studied the position that the veterans of Italy occupy and the Fascist set-up of government, and I discovered that they are the background of Mussolini. . . . I then went to Germany to see what Hitler was doing, and his whole strength lies in organizations of soldiers, too. . . . Then I went to France, and I found fust exactly the organization we are going to have. It is an organization of super soldiers." He gave me the French name for it, but I do not recall what it is. I never could have pronounced it anyhow. But I do know that it is a superorganization of members of all the other soldiers' organizations of France, composed of non-commissioned officers and officers. He told me that they had about 500,000, and that each one was a leader of ten others, so that it gave them 5,000,000 votes. And he said, "Now, that is our idea here in America -- to get up an organization of that kind."[9]

    MacGuire told Butler that his backers' plan was to create an American version of the Croix de Feu, the French soldiers' organization whose name Butler was unable to recall, and install the general at the head of it. With a powerful army behind him, the plotters anticipated, Butler could demand that Roosevelt make him a secretary of general affairs, a new position where he would serve as a kind of assistant president. From there, Butler could assume real power over the nation and the president would become a mere figurehead, on the contrived pretext that Roosevelt's health was failing. If Roosevelt refused to cooperate with the scheme, according to MacGuire, Butler's army would overthrow him.

    Journalist Paul Comly French, who also spoke with MacGuire, corroborated Butler's story:

    During the course of the conversation he continually discussed the need of a man on a white horse, as he called it, a dictator who would

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    come galloping in on his white horse. He said that was the only way; either through the threat of armed force or the delegation of power, and the use of a group of organized veterans, to save the capitalist system.

    He warmed up considerably after we got under way and he said, "We might go along with Roosevelt and then do with him what Mussolini did with the King of Italy."

    It fits in with what he told the General, that we would have a Secretary of General Affairs, and if Roosevelt played ball, swell; and if he did not, they would push him out."[10]

    The money was there, MacGuire boasted to Butler during their meeting, to raise and equip a veterans' army, $3 million in place and $300 million available if needed. His backers were already on the move, he said, putting together a front organization that would provide secret financial and practical support for the plot. The formation of the American Liberty League, an organization "to combat radicalism, to teach the necessity of respect for the rights of person and property, and generally to foster free private enterprise," was announced three weeks later. The league's treasurer, Grayson Murphy, was MacGuire's boss. Robert Clark was a major financial contributor, and men from J. P. Morgan and DuPont were the league's executives. John Davis was a member of the national executive committee. Financial backers included some of corporate America's major concerns: the Pitcairn family, Andrew Mellon Associates, Rockefeller Associates, E. F. Hutton Associates, William Knudsen of General Motors, and the V. Pew family.[11]

    MacGuire and the plotters had made a fatal mistake in their choice of a leader, however. "With incredible ineptitude," states Jules Archer in The Plot to Seize the White House, "they had selected the wrong man."[12] The plot, and the men behind it, represented everything Smedley Butler now despised. Over the years his youthful pas-

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    sion for battles abroad had given way to an equally fierce desire to fight hypocrisy at home. He had come to believe that war was a product of corporate greed, that his men had fought for no higher ideal than profit. On August 21, 1931 -- a full two years before MacGuire first approached him -- Butler had stunned an audience at an American Legion convention in Connecticut when he had said:

    I spent 33 years . . . being a high-class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer for capitalism. . . .

    I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912. I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1916. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in 1916. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City [Bank] boys to collect revenue in. I helped m the rape of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. . . .

    In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went its way unmolested. . . . I had . . . a swell racket. I was rewarded with honours, medals, promotions. . . . I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate a racket in three cities. The Marines operated on three continents.[13]

    Butler was not about to add the United States to the list of countries where he had used military force to defend U.S. corporate interests from populist threats. On November 20, 1934, he revealed the plot to the House Un-American Activities Committee in a secret executive session in New York City. By that time the general had collected as much information as he could about the plot and had made sure his story was corroborated by the work of Paul French, who also testified before the committee. The committee vindicated Butler's story in all

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    of its essential elements and submitted its findings to the House of Representatives on February 13, 1935:

    In the last few weeks of the committee's official life it received evidence showing that certain persons had made an attempt to establish a fascist organization in this country. . . .

    There is no question that these attempts were discussed, were planned, and might have been placed in execution when and if the financial backers deemed it expedient.

    This Committee received evidence from Maj. Gen. Smedley D. Butler (retired), twice decorated by the Congress of the United States. He testified before the committee as to conversations with one Gerald C. MacGuire in which the latter is alleged to have suggested the formation of a fascist army under the leadership of General Butler. . . .

    MacGuire denied these allegations under oath, but your committee was able to verify all the pertinent statements made by General Butler, with the exception of the direct statement suggesting the creation of the organization. This, however, was corroborated in the correspondence of MacGuire with his principal, Robert Sterling Clark, of New York City, while MacGuire was abroad studying the various forms of veterans organizations of Fascist character."[14]

    With Butler having refused to cooperate with MacGuire and his backers and the committee's unwavering vindication of the general's story, the plot to seize the White House quickly unraveled.

    "There was no doubt that General Butler was telling the truth," committee cochair John McCormack later recalled in a 1971 interview with Archer. "The plotters definitely hated the New Deal because it was for the people, not for the moneyed interests, and they were willing to spend a lot of their money to dump Mr. Roosevelt out of the White House." McCormack stated, "those fellows got desper-

    page 95

    ate and decided to look into European methods, with the idea of introducing them into America. They sent MacGuire to Europe to study the Fascist organizations." How close was America's brush with fascism? Archer wanted to know. "Well," said McCormack,

    if General Butler had not been the patriot he was, and if they had been able to maintain secrecy, the plot certainly might very well have succeeded, having in mind the conditions existing at that time. . . . If the plotters had got rid of Roosevelt, there is no telling what might have taken place. They wouldn't have told the people what they were doing, of course. They were going to make it all sound constitutional, of course, with a high-sounding name for the dictator and a plan to make it all sound like a good American program. A well-organized minority can always outmaneuver an unorganized majority, as Adolf Hitler did.[15]

    Today, seventy years after the failed coup, a well-organized minority again threatens democracy. Corporate America's long and patient campaign to gain control of government over the last few decades, much quieter and ultimately more effective than the plotters' clumsy attempts, is now succeeding. Without bloodshed, armies, or fascist strongmen, and using dollars rather than bullets, corporations are now poised to win what the plotters so desperately wanted: freedom from democratic control. On July 24, 2002, nine desperate coal miners waited to be rescued from a watery hell 240 feet below a Pennsylvania cow pasture. Miraculously, they had escaped a torrent of water that had flooded their mine after they had mistakenly drilled into an adjacent mine shaft that was filled with water. The miners were finally rescued after spending seventy-eight hours in a cramped air pocket. President Bush proclaimed, when he flew into town one week later, that the miners' courage and perseverance reflected that of all

    page 96

    Americans in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. "It was their determination to stick together and to comfort each other," he said, "that really defines kind of a new spirit that's prevalent in our country-that when one of us suffers, all of us suffer; that in order to succeed, we've got to be united; that by working together, we can achieve big objectives and big goals."16 It was, ironically as it turns out, similar sentiments that had originally animated Roosevelt's belief in the virtues of government regulation, including the regulation of coal mine safety.

    In 1941, with Roosevelt in the White House, Congress substantially strengthened the regulatory regime for protecting coal miners' safety by granting to the federal Bureau of Mines the authority to enter and inspect mines for possible safety hazards. Though the bureau was almost thirty years old, its jurisdiction had previously been limited to collecting information and conducting research. Now, for the first time, it could actually enforce legislated safety standards. Further improvements would soon follow. In 1952, Congress enacted the Federal Coal Mine Safety Act, which gave the bureau new powers to issue and enforce violation notices, to close mines where inspectors found imminent dangers, and to require that mines be inspected on an annual basis. The act was strengthened in the late 1960s, and then replaced in 1977 with a new act, the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act, that consolidated protections for all types of mining, and created a new enforcement agency, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), to take over from the Bureau of Mines. Annual mining fatalities dropped from 272 to 86 during the first decade of the new agency's operations.[17]

    More recently, the Bush administration introduced measures that could have had the effect of rolling back protection of coal miners' safety. In his first budget George W. Bush sought cuts to staffing levels at the MSHA, but these were defeated by the then Democratic majority in ...

    NOTES page 184-187

    Chapter 4: Democracy Ltd.

    1. Samuel Rosenman, ed„ The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Volume Two: The Year of Crisis, 1933 (New York: Random House, 1938), as cited in Cass Sunstein, The Partial Constitution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 57-58.
    2. The following account of this story is based primarily on Jules Archer, The Plot to Seize the White House (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1973).
    3. Archer, The Plot, 21.
    4. National Archives, "U.S. Strategic Bombing Surveys" 243/190/62- Box 696, August 14, 1944; Box 697, August 23, 194?; Box 946. Ford Werke, the Ford Motor Company's German subsidiary, also contributed to the Nazi war effort, providing nearly a third of the German Army's trucks. For discussions of GM and Ford's alleged involvement with the Nazis, see Bradford C. Snell, "American Ground Transport: A Proposal for Restructuring the Automobile, Truck, Bus and Rail Industries," report presented to the Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly, United States Senate, February 26, 1974 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974), 16-24; Michael Dobbs, "Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration," The Washington Post, November 30,1998.
    5. Interview with Edwin Black. Also see Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation (New York: Crown Publishers, 2001).
    6. Interviews with Edwin Black and Peter Drucker. Quotes from Dobbs, "Ford and GM Scrutinized," who reports as follows: "Less than three weeks after the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, GM Chairman Alfred P. Sloan defended this strategy [GM not divesting its German assets] as sound business practice, given the fact that the company's German operations were 'highly profitable.' "The internal politics of Nazi Germany 'should not be considered the business of the management of General Motors,' Sloan explained in a letter to a concerned shareholder dated April 6, 1939. 'We must conduct ourselves [in Germany] as a German organization. . . . We have no right to shut down the plant.' "
    7. According to David Jessup, executive director of New Economy Information Service, an organization whose survey data found a disturbing trend by U.S. corporations to invest in authoritarian countries, "I doubt that the issue of democracy-or-no-democracy is on businessmen's minds when they make an investment decision. But maybe it's an unconscious preference [for authoritarian countries]." Quoted in R. C. Longworth, "Globalization Survey Reveals U.S. Corporations Prefer Dictatorships" November 19, 1999, available at The Wall Street Journal recently reported that eighty-six companies, among them IKEA, Goodyear, First Union Bank, and CAN Financial, had been fined under the Trading with the Enemy Act between 1998 and the date of its article. The act makes it an offense to trade with a list of countries that includes Iran, Iraq, Cuba, North Korea, and Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. When Vice President Dick Cheney was CEO of Halliburton in 2000, the company opened an office in Tehran, though it was not among the group of companies fined under the act. See Stephanie M. Horvath, "U.S. Slaps 86 Firms with Fines for Deals Made with 'Enemies,'" The Wall Street Journal, July 3, 2002. On July 23, 2001, ABC News reported that most of Iraq's UN-approved oil exports were being bought by U.S. oil companies from Russian middlemen and refined in Louisiana and Texas. John K. Cooley, "Trading with the Enemy: U.S. Refiners Reportedly Buying Most of Iraq's Oil," June 20, 2002, available at For further examples, see Guy Dinmore and Najmeh Bozorgmehr, "US Companies Skirt Ban on Trade with Iran," Financial Times, February 27, 2002.
    8. Archer, The Plot, 146.
    9. Butler's testimony to the House Un-American Activities Committee, as quoted in Archer, The Plot, 153.
    10. Archer, The Plot, 156.
    11. Ibid., 30 ("combat").
    12. Ibid., 198.
    13. Ibid., 118-119.
    14. Ibid., 192-193.
    15. Ibid., 213 ("doubt," "plotters," "fellows"), 214 ("patriot").
    16. Quoted in Hendrik Hertzberg, "Comment: Mine Shaft," The New Yorker, August 19 and 26, 2002,5S.
    17. History from U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, History of Mine Safety and Health Legislation, available at

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